利用arch配置一个pxe server,网络安装各种版本linux系统,各种版本windows系统!

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利用arch配置一个pxe server,网络安装各种版本linux系统,各种版本windows系统!

#1

帖子 jarodlau » 2015-11-07 2:39

想了半天也没有找到合适的板块发这个,最后还是发这里把!

最近折腾了两个小主机,华硕EeeBox B202,atom n270的u,1g的内存,80g的硬盘,机器挺小巧,就是单核u,功能实在鸡肋,索性一个做了个播放机,这个就做了一个pxe server!

利用wol的功能,网络装系统,至于pxe的原理,如下:
图片

以下是摘自syslinux官网关于pxelinux的介绍,懒得翻译了,大家自己看,应该不难理解.
The basic configuration is the same for all Syslinux variants. This document explains only some of the differences specifically applicable to PXELINUX.
On the TFTP server, create the directory "/tftpboot", and copy "pxelinux.0" (from the Syslinux distribution) and any kernel or initrd images that you want to boot.
[5.00+] Also copy "ldlinux.c32" from the Syslinux distribution to the "/tftpboot" directory on the TFTP server.
Finally, create the directory "/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg". The configuration file (equivalent of syslinux.cfg -- see the SYSLINUX FAQ for the options here) will live in this directory.
Because more than one system may be booted from the same server, the configuration file name depends on the IP address of the booting machine.
Before a generic explanation, let's see first an example. When:
the bootloader file name is "/mybootdir/pxelinux.0"; and,
the client UUID is "b8945908-d6a6-41a9-611d-74a6ab80b83d"; and,
the Ethernet MAC address is "88:99:AA:BB:CC:DD"; and,
the IP address is "192.168.2.91", or in uppercase hexadecimal, "C0A8025B";
then PXELINUX will try the following configuration files (in this order):
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/b8945908-d6a6-41a9-611d-74a6ab80b83d
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/01-88-99-aa-bb-cc-dd
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C0A8025B
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C0A8025
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C0A802
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C0A80
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C0A8
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C0A
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C0
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/C
/mybootdir/pxelinux.cfg/default
Let's see now what exactly the above example represents.
After attempting the file as specified in the DHCP or hardcoded options, PXELINUX will probe the following paths, prefixed with "pxelinux.cfg/", under the initial Working Directory.
The client UUID, if provided by the PXE stack.
Note that some BIOSes do not have a valid UUID, and it might end up reporting something like all 1's.
This value is represented in the standard UUID format using lowercase hexadecimal digits, e.g. "b8945908-d6a6-41a9-611d-74a6ab80b83d".
The hardware type (using its ARP type code) and address, all in lowercase hexadecimal with dash separators.
For example, for an Ethernet (ARP type "1") with address "88:99:AA:BB:CC:DD", it would search for the filename "01-88-99-aa-bb-cc-dd".
The client's own IPv4 address in uppercase hexadecimal, followed by removing hex characters, one at a time, from the end. For example, "192.168.2.91" → "C0A8025B".
The included program, "gethostip", can be used to compute the hexadecimal IP address for any host.
Lowercase "default".
1:首先,需要的工具包有 dnsmasq,samba, nfs-utils,openssh,syslinux
dnsmasq = 充当dhcp和tftpserver
samba = 安装windows使用,另外也为了方便windows机器管理
nfs-utils = 加载linux镜像用
openssh = 管理用,ssh登录很方便,毕竟这台机器是个小的服务器吧
syslinux = 启动pxelinux以及各种启动程序

arch下很简单,一条命令

pacman -S dnsmasq samba nfs-utils openssh syslinux

2:然后就是配置dhcp和tftp server,以及nfs 和 ssh server了


直接贴配置文件比较省事
dnsmasq为了配置方便,我在/etc/dnsmasq.d/重建了一个pxe.conf的配置文件,配置如下

记住要把/etc/dnsmasq.conf里面下面这句话取消注释

代码: 全选

# Include another lot of configuration options.
#conf-file=/etc/dnsmasq.more.conf
conf-dir=/etc/dnsmasq.d

代码: 全选

#     function as a tftp server 启动tftpserver
enable-tftp
#     root directory for files available via ftp. ftp的root环境
tftp-root=/tftpboot
#     the boot filename
#pxe-service=X86PC,"PXE Boot Menu",pxelinux 启动文件
dhcp-boot=/tftpboot/pxelinux.0
#     kill multicast
#dhcp-option=vendor:PXEClient,6,2b
#     disable reuse of the dhcp servername and filename fields as extra.
#     option space. to avoid confusing some old or broken dhcp clients.
dhcp-no-override
#     This range(s) is for the public interface, where dnsmasq functions
#     as a proxy DHCP server providing boot information but no IP leases.
#     Any ip in the subnet will do, so you may just put your server NIC ip here.
#     I used my router ip address
#dhcp-range=192.168.2.1,proxy,255.255.255.0

#dhcp-range=192.168.2.100,proxy
# do not give IPs that are in pool of DSL routers DHCP 我避开了家里路由器的dhcp缺省池
dhcp-range=192.168.2.151,192.168.2.200,12h
#     router/gateway ip address
dhcp-option=3,192.168.2.1
#     dns server ip address
dhcp-option=6,192.168.2.1
#     enable logging
log-dhcp
log-queries
samba的配置文件smb.conf
在windows下直接在文件浏览器中打入\\192.168.2.19,就可以打开tftpboot文件夹,直接管理里面的文件

代码: 全选

# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the
# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed
# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options (perhaps too
# many!) most of which are not shown in this example
#
# Any line which starts with a ; (semi-colon) or a # (hash) 
# is a comment and is ignored. In this example we will use a #
# for commentry and a ; for parts of the config file that you
# may wish to enable
#
# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command "testparm"
# to check that you have not made any basic syntactic errors. 
#
#======================= Global Settings =====================================
[global]

# workgroup = NT-Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name
   workgroup = Workgroup

# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
   server string = Samba Server

# This option is important for security. It allows you to restrict
# connections to machines which are on your local network. The
# following example restricts access to two C class networks and
# the "loopback" interface. For more examples of the syntax see
# the smb.conf man page
;   hosts allow = 192.168.1. 192.168.2. 127.

# if you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you'll need this
   printcap name = /etc/printcap
   load printers = yes

# It should not be necessary to spell out the print system type unless
# yours is non-standard. Currently supported print systems include:
# bsd, sysv, plp, lprng, aix, hpux, qnx
;   printing = bsd

# Uncomment this if you want a guest account, you must add this to /etc/passwd
# otherwise the user "nobody" is used
;  guest account = pcguest

# this tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
   log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log

# Put a capping on the size of the log files (in Kb).
   max log size = 50

# Security mode. Most people will want user level security. See
# security_level.txt for details.
   security = user
#   security = share 
# Use password server option only with security = server
;   password server = <NT-Server-Name>

# Password Level allows matching of _n_ characters of the password for
# all combinations of upper and lower case.
;  username level = 8

# You may wish to use password encryption. Please read
# ENCRYPTION.txt, Win95.txt and WinNT.txt in the Samba documentation.
# Do not enable this option unless you have read those documents
;  encrypt passwords = yes
;  smb passwd file = /etc/samba/smbpasswd

# The following are needed to allow password changing from Windows to
# update the Linux sytsem password also.
# NOTE: Use these with 'encrypt passwords' and 'smb passwd file' above.
# NOTE2: You do NOT need these to allow workstations to change only
#        the encrypted SMB passwords. They allow the Unix password
#        to be kept in sync with the SMB password.
;  unix password sync = Yes
;  passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u
;  passwd chat = *New*UNIX*password* %n\n *ReType*new*UNIX*password* %n\n *passwd:*all*authentication*tokens*updated*successfully*

# Unix users can map to different SMB User names
;  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
# 开启 windows guest登录
   map to guest = Bad User

# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting
;   include = /etc/samba/smb.conf.%m

# Configure Samba to use multiple interfaces
# If you have multiple network interfaces then you must list them
# here. See the man page for details.
;   interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24 

# Configure remote browse list synchronisation here
#  request announcement to, or browse list sync from:
#	a specific host or from / to a whole subnet (see below)
;   remote browse sync = 192.168.3.25 192.168.5.255
# Cause this host to announce itself to local subnets here
;   remote announce = 192.168.1.255 192.168.2.44

# Browser Control Options:
# set local master to no if you don't want Samba to become a master
# browser on your network. Otherwise the normal election rules apply
;   local master = no

# OS Level determines the precedence of this server in master browser
# elections. The default value should be reasonable
;   os level = 33

# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. This
# allows Samba to collate browse lists between subnets. Don't use this
# if you already have a Windows NT domain controller doing this job
;   domain master = yes 
    domain master = auto

# Preferred Master causes Samba to force a local browser election on startup
# and gives it a slightly higher chance of winning the election
;   preferred master = yes

# Use only if you have an NT server on your network that has been
# configured at install time to be a primary domain controller.
;   domain controller = <NT-Domain-Controller-SMBName>

# Enable this if you want Samba to be a domain logon server for 
# Windows95 workstations. 
;   domain logons = yes

# if you enable domain logons then you may want a per-machine or
# per user logon script
# run a specific logon batch file per workstation (machine)
;   logon script = %m.bat
# run a specific logon batch file per username
;   logon script = %U.bat

# Where to store roving profiles (only for Win95 and WinNT)
#        %L substitutes for this servers netbios name, %U is username
#        You must uncomment the [Profiles] share below
;   logon path = \\%L\Profiles\%U

# All NetBIOS names must be resolved to IP Addresses
# 'Name Resolve Order' allows the named resolution mechanism to be specified
# the default order is "host lmhosts wins bcast". "host" means use the unix
# system gethostbyname() function call that will use either /etc/hosts OR
# DNS or NIS depending on the settings of /etc/host.config, /etc/nsswitch.conf
# and the /etc/resolv.conf file. "host" therefore is system configuration
# dependant. This parameter is most often of use to prevent DNS lookups
# in order to resolve NetBIOS names to IP Addresses. Use with care!
# The example below excludes use of name resolution for machines that are NOT
# on the local network segment
# - OR - are not deliberately to be known via lmhosts or via WINS.
; name resolve order = wins lmhosts bcast

# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support - Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable it's WINS Server
;   wins support = yes

# WINS Server - Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
#	Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
;   wins server = w.x.y.z

# WINS Proxy - Tells Samba to answer name resolution queries on
# behalf of a non WINS capable client, for this to work there must be
# at least one	WINS Server on the network. The default is NO.
;   wins proxy = yes

# DNS Proxy - tells Samba whether or not to try to resolve NetBIOS names
# via DNS nslookups. The built-in default for versions 1.9.17 is yes,
# this has been changed in version 1.9.18 to no.
   dns proxy = no 

# Case Preservation can be handy - system default is _no_
# NOTE: These can be set on a per share basis
;  preserve case = no
;  short preserve case = no
# Default case is normally upper case for all DOS files
;  default case = lower
# Be very careful with case sensitivity - it can break things!
;  case sensitive = no

#============================ Share Definitions ==============================
[homes]
   comment = Home Directories
   browseable = no
   writable = yes

# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
; [netlogon]
;   comment = Network Logon Service
;   path = /home/netlogon
;   guest ok = yes
;   writable = no
;   share modes = no


# Un-comment the following to provide a specific roving profile share
# the default is to use the user's home directory
;[Profiles]
;    path = /home/profiles
;    browseable = no
;    guest ok = yes


# NOTE: If you have a BSD-style print system there is no need to 
# specifically define each individual printer
[printers]
   comment = All Printers
   path = /var/spool/samba
   browseable = no
# Set public = yes to allow user 'guest account' to print
   guest ok = no
   writable = no
   printable = yes

# This one is useful for people to share files
;[tmp]
;   comment = Temporary file space
;   path = /tmp
;   read only = no
;   public = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, but read only, except for people in
# the "staff" group
;[public]
;   comment = Public Stuff
;   path = /home/samba
;   public = yes
;   read only = yes
;   write list = @staff

# Other examples. 
#
# A private printer, usable only by fred. Spool data will be placed in fred's
# home directory. Note that fred must have write access to the spool directory,
# wherever it is.
;[fredsprn]
;   comment = Fred's Printer
;   valid users = fred
;   path = /homes/fred
;   printer = freds_printer
;   public = no
;   writable = no
;   printable = yes

# A private directory, usable only by fred. Note that fred requires write
# access to the directory.
;[fredsdir]
;   comment = Fred's Service
;   path = /usr/somewhere/private
;   valid users = fred
;   public = no
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no

# a service which has a different directory for each machine that connects
# this allows you to tailor configurations to incoming machines. You could
# also use the %u option to tailor it by user name.
# The %m gets replaced with the machine name that is connecting.
;[pchome]
;  comment = PC Directories
;  path = /usr/pc/%m
;  public = no
;  writable = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, read/write to all users. Note that all files
# created in the directory by users will be owned by the default user, so
# any user with access can delete any other user's files. Obviously this
# directory must be writable by the default user. Another user could of course
# be specified, in which case all files would be owned by that user instead.
;[public]
;   path = /usr/somewhere/else/public
;   public = yes
;   only guest = yes
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no

# The following two entries demonstrate how to share a directory so that two
# users can place files there that will be owned by the specific users. In this
# setup, the directory should be writable by both users and should have the
# sticky bit set on it to prevent abuse. Obviously this could be extended to
# as many users as required.
;[myshare]
;   comment = Mary's and Fred's stuff
;   path = /usr/somewhere/shared
;   valid users = mary fred
;   public = no
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no
;   create mask = 0765

[tftpboot]
    comment = TFTP + PXE
    path = /tftpboot/
    public = yes
    only guest = yes
    browseable = yes
    read only = no
    writable = yes
    create mask = 0644
    directory mask = 0755
#    force create mask = 0644
#    force directory mask = 0755
    force user = root
    force group = root



nfs的配置文件 exports

代码: 全选

# /etc/exports - exports(5) - directories exported to NFS clients
#
# Example for NFSv2 and NFSv3:
#  /srv/home        hostname1(rw,sync) hostname2(ro,sync)
# Example for NFSv4:
#  /srv/nfs4	    hostname1(rw,sync,fsid=0)
#  /srv/nfs4/home   hostname1(rw,sync,nohide)
# Using Kerberos and integrity checking:
#  /srv/nfs4        *(rw,sync,sec=krb5i,fsid=0)
#  /srv/nfs4/home   *(rw,sync,sec=krb5i,nohide)
#
# Use `exportfs -arv` to reload.
#/tftpboot/images/ARCH_201510/ 192.168.2.0/24(ro,no_subtree_check)
/tftpboot/images/ARCH_201510/  *(ro,no_subtree_check,async,no_root_squash)
/tftpboot/images/kali2/         *(ro,no_subtree_check,async,no_root_squash)
3:接着配置tftpboot主目录

代码: 全选

makdir /tftpboot/{images,iso,syslinux,pxelinux.cfg}
其中images文件夹是挂载的linux安装镜像和windows安装镜像

iso文件夹里是我各种安装iso文件的收集地点

syslinux文件夹里是syslinux各种模块的收藏地点

pxelinux.cfg目录里存放着pxelinux的启动配置文件,也就是目录文件

然后把各种pxelinux启动相关的文件,拷贝入tftpboot目录,和syslinux目录

代码: 全选

cp /usr/lib/syslinux/bios/pxelinux.0  /tftpboot/
cp   /usr/lib/syslinux/bios/{chain.c32,hdt.c32,ldlinux.c32,libcom32.c32,libgpl.c32,libmenu.c32,libutil.c32,poweroff.c32,reboot.c32,vesamenu.c32} /tftpboot/syslinux/
其中
pxelinux.0是启动文件,hdt是用来显示机器的各种配置的,chain.c32是用来启动本地硬盘的,lib文件都是各种库,poweroff和reboot大家都懂的.

最后就是/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default配置文件的内容了,这个内容是根据我的机器挂载的镜像修改的

代码: 全选

UI syslinux/vesamenu.c32 
TIMEOUT 600
ONTIMEOUT Boot Local
PROMPT 0
NOESCAPE 1
ALLOWOPTIONS 1

menu hshift 5
menu width 59

menu title pxe boot menu

menu color title        * #ffffffff *
menu color border       * #00000000 #00000000 none
menu color sel          * #ffffffff #76a1d0ff *
menu color hotsel       1;7;37;40 #ffffffff #76a1d0ff *
menu color tabmsg       * #ffffffff #00000000 *
menu color help         37;40 #ffdddd00 #00000000 none
menu vshift 2
menu rows 20
menu helpmsgrow 25
# the command line must be at least one line from the bottom.
menu cmdlinerow 26
menu timeoutrow 26
menu tabmsgrow 28
menu tabmsg press enter to boot or tab to edit a menu entry


label boot local
    COM32 syslinux\chain.c32
    APPEND hd0
    text help
        boot to local hard disk
    endtext

label winpe3 32 (cn)
    kernel syslinux/memdisk
    append iso raw
    initrd iso/winpe_x86.iso
    text help
        boot to windows pe 3 32bit iso (~184mb)
    endtext

label winpe3 64 (cn)
    MENU LABEL Autoinstall win10-amd64
    kernel syslinux/memdisk
    append iso raw
    initrd iso/winpe_amd64.iso
    text help
        boot to windows pe 3 64bit iso (~207mb)
        autoinstall win10 64
    endtext

LABEL Arch32_(NFS)
    TEXT HELP
        Boot the Arch Linux (i686) live medium (Using NFS).
    It allows you to install Arch Linux or perform system maintenance.
    ENDTEXT
    MENU LABEL Install Arch Linux (i686) (NFS)
    LINUX images/ARCH_201510/arch/boot/i686/vmlinuz
    INITRD images/ARCH_201510/arch/boot/intel_ucode.img,images/ARCH_201510/arch/boot/i686/archiso.img
    APPEND archisobasedir=arch archiso_nfs_srv=192.168.2.19:/tftpboot/images/ARCH_201510 ip=:::::eth0:dhcp

LABEL Arch64 (NFS)
    TEXT HELP
        Boot the Arch Linux (x86_64) live medium (Using NFS).
    It allows you to install Arch Linux or perform system maintenance.
    ENDTEXT
    MENU LABEL Install Arch Linux (x86_64) (NFS)
    LINUX images/ARCH_201510/arch/boot/x86_64/vmlinuz
    INITRD images/ARCH_201510/arch/boot/intel_ucode.img,images/ARCH_201510/arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img
    APPEND archisobasedir=arch archiso_nfs_srv=192.168.2.19:/tftpboot/images/ARCH_201510 ip=:::::eth0:dhcp

LABEL kali2 live(amd64)
    TEXT HELP
        Boot to Kali 2.0 (sana) amd64 Live
    ENDTEXT
    MENU LABEL Kali 2.0 Live(amd64)
    KERNEL images/kali2/live/vmlinuz
    INITRD images/kali2/live/initrd.img
    APPEND netboot=nfs nfsroot=192.168.2.19:/tftpboot/images/kali2 boot=live username=root hostname=kali 

# http://www.memtest.org/
LABEL memtest
MENU LABEL Run Memtest86+ (RAM test)
LINUX memtest

# http://hdt-project.org/
LABEL hdt
MENU LABEL Hardware Information (HDT)
COM32 syslinux/hdt.c32
APPEND modules_alias=syslinux/hdt/modalias.gz pciids=syslinux/hdt/pciids.gz

LABEL reboot
MENU LABEL Reboot
COM32 syslinux/reboot.c32

LABEL poweroff
MENU LABEL Power Off
COM32 syslinux/poweroff.c32
期间还自己学会了自制winpe,我做了2个版本的winpe,一个32位,一个64位.


最后,只要把要安装的机器修改为网卡启动,就可以进入我配置的pxe server了

如下图
pxe.png
pxeserver.png
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oneleaf
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Re: 利用arch配置一个pxe server,网络安装各种版本linux系统,各种版本windows系统!

#2

帖子 oneleaf » 2015-11-07 11:21

不错,之前还折腾过利用pxe,直接从nfs上启动ubuntu。
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