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 文章标题 : ubuntu上构建openvpn
帖子发表于 : 2010-05-28 14:32 

注册: 2009-05-20 18:26
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朋友购买了一台vps,在mi国,主要来用学习linux,搭建ftp,www什么的,当然还有一个重要的作用就是:上网。 :em04 。本文是以ubuntu server 版为例,也就是vps上的os为ubuntu server,讲述openvpn的构建(用于上网的)

下面假设你已经是root用户

step1:安装openvpn
apt-get install openvpn

step2:把脚本文件复制出来,避免软件升级时被覆盖
cp -r /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/easy-rsa/2.0 /etc/openvpn

step3:把server的配置复制出来
cp /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files/server.conf.gz /etc/openvpn

step4:解压
gzip -d /etc/openvpn/server.conf.gz

step5:
cd /etc/openvpn/2.0/

Step6:
初始脚本,准备构建证书
. ./vars
./clean-all

step7:
构建CA
./build-ca

重点填上common name,email随便
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:ca

Email Address [me@myhost.mydomain]:ca@****.com


step8:
./build-key-server server


Common Name为server

"Sign the certificate? [y/n]"

and "1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]".都选Y


Step9:
产生客户端的证书,这里以client1,client2,client3为客户名字,可以自定义。
./build-key client1
./build-key client2
./build-key client3


Step10:
定义Diffie Hellman的参数
./build-dh

step11:修改server.conf配置

注意点:

确保这些文件的路径:
ca /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/ca.crt
cert /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/server.crt
key /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/server.key # This file should be kept secret
dh /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/dh1024.pem
ifconfig-pool-persist /etc/openvpn/ipp.txt


push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp" #client上所有的流量都走VPN,加密

server向client推送DNS:
push "dhcp-option DNS 208.67.222.222"
push "dhcp-option DNS 208.67.220.220"

日志文件:
status /etc/openvpn/openvpn-status.log


例子:

#################################################
# Sample OpenVPN 2.0 config file for #
# multi-client server. #
# #
# This file is for the server side #
# of a many-clients <-> one-server #
# OpenVPN configuration. #
# #
# OpenVPN also supports #
# single-machine <-> single-machine #
# configurations (See the Examples page #
# on the web site for more info). #
# #
# This config should work on Windows #
# or Linux/BSD systems. Remember on #
# Windows to quote pathnames and use #
# double backslashes, e.g.: #
# "C:\\Program Files\\OpenVPN\\config\\foo.key" #
# #
# Comments are preceded with '#' or ';' #
#################################################

# Which local IP address should OpenVPN
# listen on? (optional)
;local a.b.c.d

# Which TCP/UDP port should OpenVPN listen on?
# If you want to run multiple OpenVPN instances
# on the same machine, use a different port
# number for each one. You will need to
# open up this port on your firewall.
port 1194

# TCP or UDP server?
;proto tcp
proto udp

# "dev tun" will create a routed IP tunnel,
# "dev tap" will create an ethernet tunnel.
# Use "dev tap0" if you are ethernet bridging
# and have precreated a tap0 virtual interface
# and bridged it with your ethernet interface.
# If you want to control access policies
# over the VPN, you must create firewall
# rules for the the TUN/TAP interface.
# On non-Windows systems, you can give
# an explicit unit number, such as tun0.
# On Windows, use "dev-node" for this.
# On most systems, the VPN will not function
# unless you partially or fully disable
# the firewall for the TUN/TAP interface.
;dev tap
dev tun

# Windows needs the TAP-Win32 adapter name
# from the Network Connections panel if you
# have more than one. On XP SP2 or higher,
# you may need to selectively disable the
# Windows firewall for the TAP adapter.
# Non-Windows systems usually don't need this.
;dev-node MyTap

# SSL/TLS root certificate (ca), certificate
# (cert), and private key (key). Each client
# and the server must have their own cert and
# key file. The server and all clients will
# use the same ca file.
#
# See the "easy-rsa" directory for a series
# of scripts for generating RSA certificates
# and private keys. Remember to use
# a unique Common Name for the server
# and each of the client certificates.
#
# Any X509 key management system can be used.
# OpenVPN can also use a PKCS #12 formatted key file
# (see "pkcs12" directive in man page).
ca /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/ca.crt
cert /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/server.crt
key /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/server.key # This file should be kept secret

# Diffie hellman parameters.
# Generate your own with:
# openssl dhparam -out dh1024.pem 1024
# Substitute 2048 for 1024 if you are using
# 2048 bit keys.
dh /etc/openvpn/2.0/keys/dh1024.pem

# Configure server mode and supply a VPN subnet
# for OpenVPN to draw client addresses from.
# The server will take 10.8.0.1 for itself,
# the rest will be made available to clients.
# Each client will be able to reach the server
# on 10.8.0.1. Comment this line out if you are
# ethernet bridging. See the man page for more info.
server 10.8.0.0 255.255.255.0

# Maintain a record of client <-> virtual IP address
# associations in this file. If OpenVPN goes down or
# is restarted, reconnecting clients can be assigned
# the same virtual IP address from the pool that was
# previously assigned.
ifconfig-pool-persist /etc/openvpn/ipp.txt

# Configure server mode for ethernet bridging.
# You must first use your OS's bridging capability
# to bridge the TAP interface with the ethernet
# NIC interface. Then you must manually set the
# IP/netmask on the bridge interface, here we
# assume 10.8.0.4/255.255.255.0. Finally we
# must set aside an IP range in this subnet
# (start=10.8.0.50 end=10.8.0.100) to allocate
# to connecting clients. Leave this line commented
# out unless you are ethernet bridging.
;server-bridge 10.8.0.4 255.255.255.0 10.8.0.50 10.8.0.100

# Configure server mode for ethernet bridging
# using a DHCP-proxy, where clients talk
# to the OpenVPN server-side DHCP server
# to receive their IP address allocation
# and DNS server addresses. You must first use
# your OS's bridging capability to bridge the TAP
# interface with the ethernet NIC interface.
# Note: this mode only works on clients (such as
# Windows), where the client-side TAP adapter is
# bound to a DHCP client.
;server-bridge

# Push routes to the client to allow it
# to reach other private subnets behind
# the server. Remember that these
# private subnets will also need
# to know to route the OpenVPN client
# address pool (10.8.0.0/255.255.255.0)
# back to the OpenVPN server.
;push "route 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0"
;push "route 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0"

# To assign specific IP addresses to specific
# clients or if a connecting client has a private
# subnet behind it that should also have VPN access,
# use the subdirectory "ccd" for client-specific
# configuration files (see man page for more info).

# EXAMPLE: Suppose the client
# having the certificate common name "Thelonious"
# also has a small subnet behind his connecting
# machine, such as 192.168.40.128/255.255.255.248.
# First, uncomment out these lines:
;client-config-dir ccd
;route 192.168.40.128 255.255.255.248
# Then create a file ccd/Thelonious with this line:
# iroute 192.168.40.128 255.255.255.248
# This will allow Thelonious' private subnet to
# access the VPN. This example will only work
# if you are routing, not bridging, i.e. you are
# using "dev tun" and "server" directives.

# EXAMPLE: Suppose you want to give
# Thelonious a fixed VPN IP address of 10.9.0.1.
# First uncomment out these lines:
;client-config-dir ccd
;route 10.9.0.0 255.255.255.252
# Then add this line to ccd/Thelonious:
# ifconfig-push 10.9.0.1 10.9.0.2

# Suppose that you want to enable different
# firewall access policies for different groups
# of clients. There are two methods:
# (1) Run multiple OpenVPN daemons, one for each
# group, and firewall the TUN/TAP interface
# for each group/daemon appropriately.
# (2) (Advanced) Create a script to dynamically
# modify the firewall in response to access
# from different clients. See man
# page for more info on learn-address script.
;learn-address ./script

# If enabled, this directive will configure
# all clients to redirect their default
# network gateway through the VPN, causing
# all IP traffic such as web browsing and
# and DNS lookups to go through the VPN
# (The OpenVPN server machine may need to NAT
# or bridge the TUN/TAP interface to the internet
# in order for this to work properly).
push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp"

# Certain Windows-specific network settings
# can be pushed to clients, such as DNS
# or WINS server addresses. CAVEAT:
# http://openvpn.net/faq.html#dhcpcaveats
# The addresses below refer to the public
# DNS servers provided by opendns.com.
push "dhcp-option DNS 208.67.222.222"
push "dhcp-option DNS 208.67.220.220"

# Uncomment this directive to allow different
# clients to be able to "see" each other.
# By default, clients will only see the server.
# To force clients to only see the server, you
# will also need to appropriately firewall the
# server's TUN/TAP interface.
;client-to-client

# Uncomment this directive if multiple clients
# might connect with the same certificate/key
# files or common names. This is recommended
# only for testing purposes. For production use,
# each client should have its own certificate/key
# pair.
#
# IF YOU HAVE NOT GENERATED INDIVIDUAL
# CERTIFICATE/KEY PAIRS FOR EACH CLIENT,
# EACH HAVING ITS OWN UNIQUE "COMMON NAME",
# UNCOMMENT THIS LINE OUT.
;duplicate-cn

# The keepalive directive causes ping-like
# messages to be sent back and forth over
# the link so that each side knows when
# the other side has gone down.
# Ping every 10 seconds, assume that remote
# peer is down if no ping received during
# a 120 second time period.
keepalive 10 120

# For extra security beyond that provided
# by SSL/TLS, create an "HMAC firewall"
# to help block DoS attacks and UDP port flooding.
#
# Generate with:
# openvpn --genkey --secret ta.key
#
# The server and each client must have
# a copy of this key.
# The second parameter should be '0'
# on the server and '1' on the clients.
;tls-auth ta.key 0 # This file is secret

# Select a cryptographic cipher.
# This config item must be copied to
# the client config file as well.
;cipher BF-CBC # Blowfish (default)
;cipher AES-128-CBC # AES
;cipher DES-EDE3-CBC # Triple-DES

# Enable compression on the VPN link.
# If you enable it here, you must also
# enable it in the client config file.
comp-lzo

# The maximum number of concurrently connected
# clients we want to allow.
;max-clients 100

# It's a good idea to reduce the OpenVPN
# daemon's privileges after initialization.
#
# You can uncomment this out on
# non-Windows systems.
;user nobody
;group nogroup

# The persist options will try to avoid
# accessing certain resources on restart
# that may no longer be accessible because
# of the privilege downgrade.
persist-key
persist-tun

# Output a short status file showing
# current connections, truncated
# and rewritten every minute.
status /etc/openvpn/openvpn-status.log

# By default, log messages will go to the syslog (or
# on Windows, if running as a service, they will go to
# the "\Program Files\OpenVPN\log" directory).
# Use log or log-append to override this default.
# "log" will truncate the log file on OpenVPN startup,
# while "log-append" will append to it. Use one
# or the other (but not both).
;log openvpn.log
;log-append openvpn.log

# Set the appropriate level of log
# file verbosity.
#
# 0 is silent, except for fatal errors
# 4 is reasonable for general usage
# 5 and 6 can help to debug connection problems
# 9 is extremely verbose
verb 3

# Silence repeating messages. At most 20
# sequential messages of the same message
# category will be output to the log.
;mute 20

############################################################3




step12:
创建client的固定IP,如果不需要固定IP,就不需要ipp.txt,也要把ifconfig-pool-persist /etc/openvpn/ipp.txt注释。
ipp.txt
本文格式
client1,10.8.0.1
client2,10.8.0.5
client3,10.8.0.9
.........................
以此累加,为了兼容windows,分配过来的IP掩码必须为30位,所以10.8.0.3/30,,10.8.0.4/30之类的IP不能使用。

step13:
运行openvpn,测试
openvpn --config /etc/openvpn/server.conf


Fri May 28 11:05:07 2010 Initialization Sequence Completed #看到这个表示server端没有问题了。


step14:openvpn 和NAT设置为开启自动运行。

ctrl+C关闭openvpn,接下来

开机自动运行openvpn 和nat

创建/etc/init.d/myopenvpn
echo '/usr/sbin/openvpn --config /etc/openvpn/server.conf' > /etc/init.d/myopenvpn

创建/etc/init.d/iptables,用于NAT网络地址转换的,就是把10.8.0.0/24所有的IP转换为vps的public IP才能上网。
echo '/sbin/iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/24 -j SNAT --to-source your-vps-ip' /etc/init.d/iptables

更改两个文件的权限
chmod 755 /etc/init.d/iptables
chmod 755 /etc/init.d/myopenvpn

创建链接
ln -sf /etc/init.d/iptables /etc/rc2.d/S99iptables
ln -sf /etc/init.d/myopenvpn /etc/rc2.d/S99myopenvpn

安装自动运行配置软件:
apt-get install sysv-rc-conf

运行:
sysv-rc-conf
空格为选择
确保iptables 和myopenvpn 运行级别是2,3,4,5

重启服务器。


step15:

分发证书:
所有的证书都放在/etc/openvpn/2.0/keys。
注意!!!:
1.所有的用户都要有ca.crt。
2.ca.key和server.key为私钥!!不能给任何人,放在服务器上不要在网络上进行传输。

client1用户证书:
client.crt
client.key
ca.crt

client2用户证书:
client2.crt
client2.key
ca.crt



step16:client上安装openvpn软件

step17:在客户端上,把client(n).crt,client(n).key,ca.crt,三个文件放在:

linux客户:
/etc/openvpn/

windows客户:
C:\Program Files\openvpn



step18:修改client配置文件,把相关证书的文件名和路径写好,记得填上VPS的IP


linux用户:
/etc/openvpn/client.conf

在client.conf后面加上(windows用户不需要)
up /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf
down /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf

安装resolvconf
例如:ubuntu系统上
sudo apt-get install resolvconf


windows上:
把C:\Program Files\openvpn\sample-config\client.ovpn
复制到C:\Program Files\openvpn\

例子:
##############################################
# Sample client-side OpenVPN 2.0 config file #
# for connecting to multi-client server. #
# #
# This configuration can be used by multiple #
# clients, however each client should have #
# its own cert and key files. #
# #
# On Windows, you might want to rename this #
# file so it has a .ovpn extension #
##############################################

# Specify that we are a client and that we
# will be pulling certain config file directives
# from the server.
client

# Use the same setting as you are using on
# the server.
# On most systems, the VPN will not function
# unless you partially or fully disable
# the firewall for the TUN/TAP interface.
;dev tap
dev tun

# Windows needs the TAP-Win32 adapter name
# from the Network Connections panel
# if you have more than one. On XP SP2,
# you may need to disable the firewall
# for the TAP adapter.
;dev-node MyTap

# Are we connecting to a TCP or
# UDP server? Use the same setting as
# on the server.
;proto tcp
proto udp

# The hostname/IP and port of the server.
# You can have multiple remote entries
# to load balance between the servers.
remote XXXXXXXXXXX 1194
;remote my-server-2 1194

# Choose a random host from the remote
# list for load-balancing. Otherwise
# try hosts in the order specified.
;remote-random

# Keep trying indefinitely to resolve the
# host name of the OpenVPN server. Very useful
# on machines which are not permanently connected
# to the internet such as laptops.
resolv-retry infinite

# Most clients don't need to bind to
# a specific local port number.
nobind

# Downgrade privileges after initialization (non-Windows only)
;user nobody
;group nogroup

# Try to preserve some state across restarts.
persist-key
persist-tun

# If you are connecting through an
# HTTP proxy to reach the actual OpenVPN
# server, put the proxy server/IP and
# port number here. See the man page
# if your proxy server requires
# authentication.
;http-proxy-retry # retry on connection failures
;http-proxy [proxy server] [proxy port #]

# Wireless networks often produce a lot
# of duplicate packets. Set this flag
# to silence duplicate packet warnings.
;mute-replay-warnings

# SSL/TLS parms.
# See the server config file for more
# description. It's best to use
# a separate .crt/.key file pair
# for each client. A single ca
# file can be used for all clients.
ca /etc/openvpn/ca.crt
cert /etc/openvpn/oucanrong.crt
key /etc/openvpn/oucanrong.key

# Verify server certificate by checking
# that the certicate has the nsCertType
# field set to "server". This is an
# important precaution to protect against
# a potential attack discussed here:
# http://openvpn.net/howto.html#mitm
#
# To use this feature, you will need to generate
# your server certificates with the nsCertType
# field set to "server". The build-key-server
# script in the easy-rsa folder will do this.
ns-cert-type server

# If a tls-auth key is used on the server
# then every client must also have the key.
;tls-auth ta.key 1

# Select a cryptographic cipher.
# If the cipher option is used on the server
# then you must also specify it here.
;cipher x

# Enable compression on the VPN link.
# Don't enable this unless it is also
# enabled in the server config file.
comp-lzo

# Set log file verbosity.
verb 3

# Silence repeating messages
;mute 20


#Linux user
up /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf
down /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf
####################################################################



Step19:拔号
Linux用户:
openvpn --script-security 3 --config client.conf

如果看到这个,表示client与server之间已经建立了加密隧道了。
Fri May 28 12:30:23 2010 Initialization Sequence Completed

Windows 用户:
把防火墙关闭。client.ovpn文件,右键,使用openvpn拔号。

Fri May 28 12:30:23 2010 Initialization Sequence Completed
如果看到这个,表示client与server之间已经建立了加密隧道了。

http://www.ip.cn看看,现在的出口IP。

如果还上不了网,在server上再试试以下命令:
/sbin/iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/24 -j SNAT --to-source your-vps-ip
替换your-vps-ip

官方文档
http://openvpn.net/index.php/open-sourc ... o.html#pki


最后由 oucanrong 编辑于 2010-05-28 14:40,总共编辑了 1 次

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2 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: ubuntu上构建openvpn
帖子发表于 : 2010-05-28 14:39 

注册: 2009-05-20 18:26
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搞了两天,现在我的两台电脑都可以连接了,,一台ubuntu,一台xp


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3 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: ubuntu上构建openvpn
帖子发表于 : 2010-05-28 14:47 
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注册: 2007-05-06 2:46
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认字苦啊,我都是用nm联接vpn

有图形界面的就好了
:em06


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4 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: ubuntu上构建openvpn
帖子发表于 : 2010-09-08 3:09 

注册: 2010-05-31 17:13
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完全看不懂


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5 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: ubuntu上构建openvpn
帖子发表于 : 2010-10-13 13:44 
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不错 ,很详细 先收藏了 改天仔细研究下


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路漫漫长其修远兮,吾将上下而求索!
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6 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: ubuntu上构建openvpn
帖子发表于 : 2010-11-23 12:37 
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oucanrong, 你好,为什么我ubuntu自己链接自己vpn可以,但是其他外网的人链接就报
TCP/UDP: Incoming packet rejected from *.*.*.44:1194[2], expected peer address: *.*.*.226:1194 (allow this incoming source address/port by removing --remote or adding --float)
和解。。。急~~~ :em20 :em20 :em20


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7 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: ubuntu上构建openvpn
帖子发表于 : 2011-09-30 20:43 
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mark 最近想要掏m自己搞个VPS了 可恶的GFW


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