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 文章标题 : [wiki]BackupYourSystem
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-22 14:13 
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Note: This page needs work. Use at your own risk

This guide to backup your system using tar to create compressed archives was taken from the post on the Ubuntu Forum written by Heliode. See the thread for discussion: [WWW] http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=35087

1. Introduction
2. Backing-up
3. Restoring
1. GRUB restore
4. Other Methods

Introduction

Hi, and welcome to the Heliode guide to successful backing-up and restoring of a Linux system!

Most of you have probably used Windows before you started using Ubuntu. During that time you might have needed to backup and restore your system. For Windows you would need proprietary software for which you would have to reboot your machine and boot into a special environment in which you could perform the backing-up/restoring (programs like Norton Ghost). During that time you might have wondered why it wasn't possible to just add the whole c:\ to a big zip-file. This is impossible because in Windows, there are lots of files you can't copy or overwrite while they are being used, and therefore you needed specialized software to handle this.

Well, I'm here to tell you that those things, just like rebooting, are Windows Crazy Things (tm). There's no need to use programs like Ghost to create backups of your Ubuntu system (or any Linux system, for that matter). In fact; using Ghost might be a very bad idea if you are using anything but ext2. Ext3, the default Ubuntu partition, is seen by Ghost as a damaged ext2 partition and does a very good job at screwing up your data.
Backing-up

"What should I use to backup my system then?" might you ask. Easy; the same thing you use to backup/compress everything else; TAR. Unlike Windows, Linux doesn't restrict root access to anything, so you can just throw every single file on a partition in a TAR file!

To do this, become root with

sudo su

and go to the root of your filesystem (we use this in our example, but you can go anywhere you want your backup to end up, including remote or removable drives.)

cd /

Now, below is the full command I would use to make a backup of my system:

tar cvpzf backup.tgz / --exclude=/proc --exclude=/lost+found --exclude=/backup.tgz --exclude=/mnt --exclude=/sys

Now, lets explain this a little bit:

*

The 'tar' part is, obviously, the program we're going to use.
*

'cvpfz' are the options we give to tar, like 'create archive' (obviously), 'preserve permissions'(to keep the same permissions on everything the same), and 'gzip' to keep the size down.
*

Next, the name the archive is going to get. backup.tgz in our example.
*

Next comes the root of the directory we want to backup. Since we want to backup everything; /
*

Now come the directories we want to exclude. We don't want to backup everything since some dirs aren't very useful to include. Also make sure you don't include the file itself, or else you'll get weird results. You might also not want to include the /mnt folder if you have other partitions mounted there or you'll end up backing those up too. Also make sure you don't have anything mounted in /media (i.e. don't have any cd's or removable media mounted). Either that or exclude /media.

EDIT: kvidell suggests on the forum thread that we also exclude the /dev directory. I have other evidence that says it is very unwise to do so though.

Well, if the command agrees with you, hit enter (or return, whatever) and sit back&relax. This might take a while.

Afterwards you'll have a file called backup.tgz in the root of your filessytem, which is probably pretty large. Now you can burn it to DVD or move it to another machine, whatever you like!

EDIT2: At the end of the process you might get a message along the lines of 'tar: Error exit delayed from previous errors' or something, but in most cases you can just ignore that.

Alternatively, you can use Bzip2 to compress your backup. This means higher compression but lower speed. If compression is important to you, just substitute the 'z' in the command with 'j', and give the backup the right extension. That would make the command look like this:

tar cvpjf backup.tar.bz2 / --exclude=/proc --exclude=/lost+found --exclude=/backup.tar.bz2 --exclude=/mnt --exclude=/sys

Restoring

IconWarning3.png Warning: Please, for goodness sake, be careful here. If you don't understand what you are doing here you might end up overwriting stuff that is important to you, so please take care!

Well, we'll just continue with our example from the previous chapter; the file backup.tgz in the root of the partition.

Once again, make sure you are root and that you and the backup file are in the root of the filesystem.

One of the beautiful things of Linux is that This'll work even on a running system; no need to screw around with boot-cd's or anything. Of course, if you've rendered your system unbootable you might have no choice but to use a live-cd, but the results are the same. You can even remove every single file of a Linux system while it is running with one command. I'm not giving you that command though!

Well, back on-topic. This is the command that I would use:

tar xvpfz backup.tgz -C /

Or if you used bz2;

tar xvpfj backup.tar.bz2 -C /

IconWarning3.png WARNING: this will overwrite every single file on your partition with the one in the archive!

Just hit enter/return/your brother/whatever and watch the fireworks. Again, this might take a while. When it is done, you have a fully restored Ubuntu system! Just make sure that, before you do anything else, you re-create the directories you excluded:

mkdir proc mkdir lost+found mkdir mnt mkdir sys etc...

And when you reboot, everything should be the way it was when you made the backup!
GRUB restore

Now, if you want to move your system to a new harddisk or if you did something nasty to your GRUB (like, say, install Windows), You'll also need to reinstall GRUB. There are several very good howto's on how to do that here on this forum, so i'm not going to reinvent the wheel. Instead, take a look [WWW] here (forum) or here: RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows

On the forum thread, there are a couple of methods proposed. I personally recommend the second one, posted by remmelt, since that has always worked for me.

Well that's it! I hope it was helpful!
Other Methods

You might also want to check out these backup programs which will help you to make automated backups of your system:

*

[WWW] Partimage
*

[WWW] Mondo Rescue

https://wiki.ubuntu.com/BackupYourSystem


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2 楼 
 文章标题 : 边翻译边灌水
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-22 21:19 
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翻译一会,灌一下水,夯夯。 :evil:

See the thread for discussion: [WWW] http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=35087
thread, A set of posts on a newsgroup, composed of an initial post about a topic and all responses to it.(dictionary.com)这个应该翻成“一组帖子”还是“主题”呢?

[WWW] http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=35087
[WWW]是啥东东?跳过


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3 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: 迷茫.照单词翻译
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-22 21:26 
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DarkEyes 写道:

1. GRUB restore




3.从GRUB恢复


这个不是从GRUB恢复,而是恢复grub

DarkEyes没有看完整篇文章吧 :)


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4 楼 
 文章标题 : 这句不太好翻
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-22 21:48 
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For Windows you would need proprietary software for which you would have to reboot your machine and boot into a special environment in which you could perform the backing-up/restoring (programs like Norton Ghost).
这句不太好翻。尤其是for which。谁有比较好的翻译?


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5 楼 
 文章标题 : 求教
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-22 22:20 
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Well, I'm here to tell you that those things, just like rebooting, are Windows Crazy Things (tm).
这个tm是啥?我猜是商标记号。
还有Windows Crazy Things怎么翻?这可是注册商标啊!不能乱翻的。^……^

In fact; using Ghost might be a very bad idea if you are using anything but ext2. Ext3, the default Ubuntu partition, is seen by Ghost as a damaged ext2 partition and does a very good job at screwing up your data.
In fact;哈哈,把:打成;了,是不是作者的shift键坏了?(其实用逗号也可以的。)

you are using anything but ext2
anything but可是高中的重点词组啊!我还记得意思,但不记得怎么翻了,有谁知道的告诉我。这一句我是用意译的。

Ext3, the default Ubuntu partition, is seen by Ghost as a damaged ext2 partition and does a very good job at screwing up your data.
does a very good job的主语是什么,应该是Ext3啊,但是从文意上看有只能是Ghost。奇怪的语法现象。:(


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6 楼 
 文章标题 : 这个怎么翻?
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-22 22:38 
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Easy; the same thing you use to backup/compress everything else; TAR.
我看出来了,这个作者有把逗号打成分号的习惯。

the same thing you use to backup/compress everything else
很难直译,谁有好办法?

Linux doesn't restrict root access to anything
root是翻成根用户,还是超级用户?
access是翻成访问,还是存取?(是不是听上去存取比访问权力大一点?)


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7 楼 
 文章标题 : 一小段
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-23 0:56 
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"What should I use to backup my system then?" might you ask. Easy; the same thing you use to backup/compress everything else; TAR. Unlike Windows, Linux doesn't restrict root access to anything, so you can just throw every single file on a partition in a TAR file!

你可能会问,那我该用什么备份系统?很简单,就像你备份或压缩一个别的文件一样,用TAR。不像windows,LINUX 不限制根用户做任何事情,所以你可以把一个分区里的每一个文件都放入一个tar文件中


嘿嘿。。直接把下面的弄上来。有英语是在是没的说就一个字


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最后由 DarkEyes 编辑于 2005-07-23 3:14,总共编辑了 1 次

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 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-23 1:19 
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我的理解:

你可能会问,那我该用什么备份系统?很简单,就像你备份或压缩一个别的文件一样,用TAR。不像windows,LINUX 不限制根用户做任何事情,所以你可以把一个分区里的每一个文件都放入一个tar文件中。


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最后由 lyreopera 编辑于 2005-07-23 1:49,总共编辑了 1 次

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9 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: 求教
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-23 1:42 
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millennuimdark 写道:
you are using anything but ext2
anything but可是高中的重点词组啊!我还记得意思,但不记得怎么翻了,有谁知道的告诉我。这一句我是用意译的。

Ext3, the default Ubuntu partition, is seen by Ghost .
does a very good job的主语是什么,应该是Ext3啊,但是从文意上看有只能是Ghost。奇怪的语法现象。:(


我也不知道现在我的英语水平怎么样了,反正我从来不记词组的说,

anything but我就直接看作两个单词:任何事情除了


语法没问题,Ext3, the default Ubuntu partition, is seen by Ghost (as a damaged ext2 partition and does a very good job at screwing up your data)

括号中是一个XX成分,语法基本上忘了……正好恶补……

看来我们是这里最水的了……


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10 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: 一小段
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-23 9:56 
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lyreopera 写道:

就像你备份或压缩一个别的文件一样


这句翻的真漂亮,那我就直接掠美了。 :D


最后由 millenniumdark 编辑于 2005-07-23 10:08,总共编辑了 1 次

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11 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: 求教
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-23 10:04 
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lyreopera 写道:

anything but我就直接看作两个单词:任何事情除了






这样的话nothing but就是:没有事情除了

恩,直接看作两个单词这个方法好,我以前碰到这两个词组都要想半天才会搞明白谁是谁,现在我不会忘了。

lyreopera 写道:

语法没有问题


这个是我孤陋寡闻了
谢谢,我的知识又有所长进

[/quote]


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12 楼 
 文章标题 : 需要帮助
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-23 10:20 
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and go to the root of your filesystem (we use this in our example, but you can go anywhere you want your backup to end up, including remote or removable drives.)
接着去你的文件系统的根目录(在我们的例子中,我们使用它,不过你可以去你希望你的备份结尾的任何地方,包括远程或可移动驱动器。)
“你可以去你希望你的备份结尾的任何地方”这句我不满意,需要帮助。
还是就翻成“你可以去你希望备份的任何地方”?

lets explain this a little bit
这个lets就是let's的意思吧

and 'gzip' to keep the size down.
Well, we'll just continue with our example from the previous chapter; the file backup.tgz in the root of the partition.
根据上文,给它加上括号, and 'gzip' (to keep the size down)

take a look [WWW] here (forum) or here: RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows
[WWW] Partimage
[WWW] Mondo Rescue
翻译的时候我已经把网址补出来了。


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13 楼 
 文章标题 : 翻译完毕,下面是整理好的文章
帖子发表于 : 2005-07-23 12:39 
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BackupYourSystem
备份你的系统


Note: This page needs work. Use at your own risk
注意:这一页还需要完善。使用者需自行承担风险。

This guide to backup your system using tar to create compressed archives was taken from the post on the Ubuntu Forum written by Heliode. See the thread for discussion: [WWW] http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=35087
这一份使用tar创建压缩文件来备份你的系统的指南取自Heliode在Ubuntu论坛上写的帖子。查看讨论主题:http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=35087

1. Introduction
1。介绍
2. Backing-up
2。 备份
3. Restoring
3。恢复
1. GRUB restore
1。 恢复 GRUB
4. Other Methods
4。其他办法


Introduction
介绍

Hi, and welcome to the Heliode guide to successful backing-up and restoring of a Linux system!
嗨,欢迎来到Heliode的成功备份和恢复Linux系统的指南!

Most of you have probably used Windows before you started using Ubuntu. During that time you might have needed to backup and restore your system. For Windows you would need proprietary software for which you would have to reboot your machine and boot into a special environment in which you could perform the backing-up/restoring (programs like Norton Ghost). During that time you might have wondered why it wasn't possible to just add the whole c:\ to a big zip-file. This is impossible because in Windows, there are lots of files you can't copy or overwrite while they are being used, and therefore you needed specialized software to handle this.
你们大多数在开始使用Ubuntu之前多半使用Windows。在那时候,你也许需要备份和恢复系统。对于Windows而言,你需要某种私有软件。使用这种私有软件,你得重启你的机器,引导到一个特殊的环境,在这一环境下,你可以备份和恢复(这种私有软件是像Norton Ghost之类的程序)。在那时候,你也许会寻思为什么不可能仅仅把整个C盘压缩成一个大zip文件。在Windows下这是不可能的,因为有大量的文件在它们使用的时候是无法复制、重写的,所以你需要专门的软件来处理备份。

Well, I'm here to tell you that those things, just like rebooting, are Windows Crazy Things (tm). There's no need to use programs like Ghost to create backups of your Ubuntu system (or any Linux system, for that matter). In fact, using Ghost might be a very bad idea if you are using anything but ext2. Ext3, the default Ubuntu partition, is seen by Ghost as a damaged ext2 partition and does a very good job at screwing up your data.
那么,我在这里要告诉你,那些东西,正如重启一样,都是Windows荒唐事件(tm)。完全没有必要使用Ghost之类的程序来创建你的Ubuntu系统(或者任何Linux系统,就这点而论)的备份。事实上,使用Ghost也许会是一个糟透了的主意,如果你使用的不是
ext2。Ubuntu的默认分区Ext3,在Ghost看来是一个毁坏了的ext2分区,然后,Ghost会很好地糟蹋你的数据。


Backing-up
备份

"What should I use to backup my system then?" might you ask. Easy; the same thing you use to backup/compress everything else; TAR. Unlike Windows, Linux doesn't restrict root access to anything, so you can just throw every single file on a partition in a TAR file!
“那我该用什么来备份我的系统呢?”也许你会问。小事一桩,就像你备份或压缩一个别的文件一样,TAR。不像Windows,Linux不限制根用户存取任何东西,因此,你完全可以把一个分区上每一个的文件放入一个TAR文件中。

To do this, become root with
来实施这一方法,用这个成为根用户:

sudo su
(译者注:代码,无需翻译)

and go to the root of your filesystem (we use this in our example, but you can go anywhere you want your backup to end up, including remote or removable drives.)
接着去你的文件系统的根目录(在我们的例子中,我们使用它,不过你可以去你希望备份的任何地方,包括远程或可移动驱动器。)

cd /
(译者注:代码)

Now, below is the full command I would use to make a backup of my system:
然后,下面就是我用来备份我的系统的完整的命令:

tar cvpzf backup.tgz / --exclude=/proc --exclude=/lost+found --exclude=/backup.tgz --exclude=/mnt --exclude=/sys
(译者注:代码)

Now, let's explain this a little bit:
接着,让我们稍微解释一下:
*

The 'tar' part is, obviously, the program we're going to use.


很明显,'tar'部分就是我们将要使用的软件。
*

'cvpfz' are the options we give to tar, like 'create archive' (obviously), 'preserve permissions'(to keep the same permissions on everything the same), and 'gzip' (to keep the size down).


'cvpfz'是我们给tar加的选项,像“创建一个压缩文档”(这是显然的),“保存权限”(以便使每一个相同的文件有相同的权限),以及“gzip”(缩减大小)。
*

Next, the name the archive is going to get. backup.tgz in our example.


接下来,是压缩文档将获得的名称,在我们的例子中是backup.tgz。
*

Next comes the root of the directory we want to backup. Since we want to backup everything:/


紧随其后的是我们想要备份的根目录。既然我们想备份所有东西:/
*

Now come the directories we want to exclude. We don't want to backup everything since some dirs aren't very useful to include. Also make sure you don't include the file itself, or else you'll get weird results. You might also not want to include the /mnt folder if you have other partitions mounted there or you'll end up backing those up too. Also make sure you don't have anything mounted in /media (i.e. don't have any cd's or removable media mounted). Either that or exclude /media.


接着就是我们要剔除的目录了。我们不想备份每一样东西,因为包括有些目录不是非常有用。同时确保你没有把备份文件本身也加进去了,否则,你会得到怪异的结果的。你也许同样不打算把/mnt文件夹包括进来——如果你在那儿挂载了其他分区——否则最终你会把那些也备份的。同时确保你没有任何东西挂载在/media(即没有挂载任何cd或可移动介质)。否则,剔除/media。

EDIT: kvidell suggests on the forum thread that we also exclude the /dev directory. I have other evidence that says it is very unwise to do so though.
按:kvidell在论坛主题里建议也剔除/dev目录。不过,我有其他证据表明这样做是不明智的。

Well, if the command agrees with you, hit enter (or return, whatever) and sit back&relax. This might take a while.
好了,如果命令适合你的话,敲击确定键(或者回车键,管它叫什么名字),然后什么都不用干,放松一下。备份也许会花上一段时间。

Afterwards you'll have a file called backup.tgz in the root of your filessytem, which is probably pretty large. Now you can burn it to DVD or move it to another machine, whatever you like!
完了以后,在你的文件系统的根目录会有一个叫作backup.tgz的文件——很可能相当巨大。现在你可以把烧录到DVD上,或者移动到另一台机器,你可以做任何你想做的事情。

EDIT2: At the end of the process you might get a message along the lines of 'tar: Error exit delayed from previous errors' or something, but in most cases you can just ignore that.
按2:在进程的最后,你也许会得到一条信息,写着“tar:由于先前错误的耽搁而存在错误”或者其他什么,不过大多数情况下你可以仅仅忽略它。

Alternatively, you can use Bzip2 to compress your backup. This means higher compression but lower speed. If compression is important to you, just substitute the 'z' in the command with 'j', and give the backup the right extension. That would make the command look like this:
作为选择,你可以使用Bzip来压缩你的备份。这意味着较高的压缩比但是也意味着较低的速度。如果压缩比对你很重要,只需用“j”替换命令中的“z”,
同时给备份命一个相应的扩展名。这些会使命令变成这样:
tar cvpjf backup.tar.bz2 / --exclude=/proc --exclude=/lost+found --exclude=/backup.tar.bz2 --exclude=/mnt --exclude=/sys
(译者注:代码)


Restoring
恢复

Warning: Please, for goodness sake, be careful here. If you don't understand what you are doing here you might end up overwriting stuff that is important to you, so please take care!
警告:看在上帝的份上,在这一部分请小心谨慎。如果你不理解你在这里干了什么,你可能最终毁坏了对你而言很重要的东西,所以请小心谨慎。

Well, we'll just continue with our example from the previous chapter: the file backup.tgz in the root of the partition.
那么,我们将紧接着上一章的例子:在分区的根目录下的backup.tgz文件

Once again, make sure you are root and that you and the backup file are in the root of the filesystem.
再一次确保你是根用户以及备份文件在文件系统的根目录。

One of the beautiful things of Linux is that This'll work even on a running system; no need to screw around with boot-cd's or anything. Of course, if you've rendered your system unbootable you might have no choice but to use a live-cd, but the results are the same. You can even remove every single file of a Linux system while it is running with one command. I'm not giving you that command though!
Linux美妙的地方之一就是这一项工作甚至可以在一个正在运行的系统上进行;没必要被引导cd或者任何东西搞得晕头转向。当然,如果你使你的系统无法被引导了。你也许别无选择,只能使用一张live-cd了,但是结果是一样的。你甚至可以在Linux系统正在运行的时候,移除它里面所有文件。可是我不告诉你那个命令!

Well, back on-topic. This is the command that I would use:
好了,言归正传。这是我要用的命令:

tar xvpfz backup.tgz -C /
(译者注:代码)
Or if you used bz2;
如果你使用bz2
tar xvpfj backup.tar.bz2 -C /
(译者注:代码)

WARNING: this will overwrite every single file on your partition with the one in the archive!
警告:这会把你分区里所有文件替换成压缩文档里的文件!

Just hit enter/return/your brother/whatever and watch the fireworks. Again, this might take a while. When it is done, you have a fully restored Ubuntu system! Just make sure that, before you do anything else, you re-create the directories you excluded:
只要敲一下确定/回车/你的兄弟/随便什么,然后去看焰火吧。同样,这会花一段时间。等它完成了,你就有了一个完全恢复的Ubuntu系统!只需确保在你做其他任何事情之前,重新创建你剔除的目录:

mkdir proc mkdir lost+found mkdir mnt mkdir sys etc...
(译者注:代码)

And when you reboot, everything should be the way it was when you made the backup!
当你重启以后,所以的事情都会和你备份的时候一模一样。


GRUB restore
恢复GRUB

Now, if you want to move your system to a new harddisk or if you did something nasty to your GRUB (like, say, install Windows), You'll also need to reinstall GRUB. There are several very good howto's on how to do that here on this forum, so i'm not going to reinvent the wheel. Instead, take a look [WWW] here (forum) or here: RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows
那么,如果你想把你的系统移动到一块新硬盘上,或者,你想对你的GRUB做一些糟糕的事情(比方说,安装Windows),你也将需要重装GRUB。在这个论坛里,有不少如何做这个的非常好的指导,所以我不会从头重新做起。相反,看一下这里(论坛)http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=24113&highlight=grub+restore,或者这儿RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows https://wiki.ubuntu.comRecoveringUbuntu ... ingWindows

On the forum thread, there are a couple of methods proposed. I personally recommend the second one, posted by remmelt, since that has always worked for me.
在这个论坛主题中,提出了一些方法。我个人建议第二个,remmelt贴出来的,因为我发现它每次都管用。

Well that's it! I hope it was helpful!
对,就是那个!我希望它有帮助!


Other Methods
其他方法

You might also want to check out these backup programs which will help you to make automated backups of your system:
也许你也想看一下这些能帮助你自动备份系统的程序
*

[WWW] Partimage


Partimage(http://www.partimage.org/)

*

[WWW] Mondo Rescue


Mondo Rescue(http://www.mondorescue.org/)

https://wiki.ubuntu.com/BackupYourSystem
(译者注:网址,不翻译)


译者:Jonah.Simon
顾问:lyreopera
日期:2005,6,22--2005.6.23


最后由 millenniumdark 编辑于 2005-07-23 13:02,总共编辑了 2 次

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