来源： http://www.ubuntu.org.cn/community/ubun ... overnance/
The Ubuntu community includes several structures to help it function effectively. Participation in every structure is open to members of the community.
Ubuntu has a structure of community governance that aims to:
1. ensure a process is defined that allows people to contribute to decisions regarding the Ubuntu community and distribution,
2. ensure that decisions regarding the Ubuntu distribution and community are taken in a fair and transparent fashion,
3. ensure that necessary decisions are actually taken, even when there is no clear consensus amongst the community.
There are a number of key teams that are responsible for different areas of Ubuntu (for example: marketing, documentation, kernel, servers, laptops, translation).
If you have a particular interest in a specific aspect of the project, please join that team's discussions and contribute to their decisions. Examples include teams focused on laptop usage of Ubuntu, the Ubuntu desktop look and feel, Ubuntu for servers, ports to AMD64, PowerPC and IA64 platforms, release management and the installer. If you would like to set up a new team, please gather some like-minded people and propose for consideration by the Community Council.
Local Community Teams (LoCo Teams)
A major part of the fabric of the community is the LoCo team structure. LoCo teams work with local Linux User Groups (LUG's), schools, municipalities and even national governments to open people's eyes to the world of Free Software.
A good LoCo team gathers free software lovers regularly for beer, open discussion, talks, marketing events, installfests and to recognise the achievements of local free software contributors. We provide server hosting space for LoCo websites, wiki's, mailing lists and other resources. LoCo members visit conferences to speak (or protest :-)), to hand out CD's, to teach, or debate and to represent both Ubuntu and the free software movement.
The LoCo team action happens mostly in the wiki, see the LoCoTeams page for more information.
The Ubuntu Technical Board is responsible for the technical direction that Ubuntu takes. The Technical Board is responsible for decisions over package selection, packaging policy, installation system and process, toolchain, kernel, X server, library versions and dependencies. The Technical Board works with the relevant Team when taking such a decision, trying to find consensus with the team members responsible for the implementation of the decision.
The Technical Board is responsible for several key policy documents and standards, and is required to sign off on a complete set of these for each release of Ubuntu.
The Technical Board meets every two weeks on IRC (usually on a Tuesday, alternating with the Community Council). You can propose an item for discussion by the Technical Board by putting it on the Technical Board Agenda on the Ubuntu Wiki.
Ubuntu Community Council
The social structures and community processes of Ubuntu are supervised by the Ubuntu Community Council. It is the Community Council that approves the creation of a new Team or Project, and appointment of team leaders. In addition, the Community Council is the body responsible for the Code of Conduct and tasked with ensuring that maintainers and other community members follow its guidelines.
The Community Council is the custodian of the Code of Conduct and is responsible for dispute resolution, should it be required. For example, in the past, we have helped to resolve conflicts in LoCo teams and in the Ubuntu Forums, both very important parts of the community.
The Community Council meets every two weeks on IRC, you can propose an item for discussion at a Council meeting by placing it on the Community Council Agenda page on the Ubuntu Wiki.
This is not a democracy, it's a meritocracy. We try to operate more on consensus than on votes, seeking agreement from the people who will have to do the work. Mark Shuttleworth, as SABDFL, plays a happily undemocratic role as sponsor of the project. He has the ability, with regard to Canonical employees, to ask people to work on specific projects, specific feature goals, and specific bugs.
He also has a casting vote on the Technical Board and Community Council, should it come to a vote. This capacity is not used lightly. The community functions best when it can reach broad consensus about a way forward. However, it is not uncommon in the open source world for there to be multiple good arguments, no clear consensus, and for arguments to divide communities rather than enrich them. The argument absorbs the energy that might otherwise have gone towards the creation of a solution. In many cases, there is no one "right" answer, and what is needed is a decision more than a debate. SABDFL acts to provide clear leadership on difficult issues, and set the pace for the project.
It is understood that the divisive use of SABDFL's authority could weaken the project. For that reason the authority is used carefully, in the hope that it will create momentum in the best direction for the project, breaking stalemates where otherwise competing views would fail to reach consensus.