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 文章标题 : [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 9:34 
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Debian and Ubuntu

Ubuntu and Debian are closely related. Ubuntu builds on the foundations of Debian architecture and infrastructure, with a different community and release process.

About Debian

Debian is "the rock upon which Ubuntu is built".

Debian is a volunteer project to develop a GNU/Linux distribution. Debian was started more than a decade ago and has since grown to comprise more than 1000 members with official developer status and many more volunteers and contributors. It has expanded to encompass over 20,000 "packages" of free and open source applications and documentation.

About Ubuntu

Sponsored by Canonical, the Ubuntu project attempts to work with Debian to address the issues that keep many users from using Debian. Ubuntu provides a system based on Debian with frequent time-based releases, corporate accountability, and a more considered desktop interface. Ubuntu provides users with a way to deploy Debian with security fixes, release critical bug fixes, a consistent desktop interface, and to never be more than six months away from the latest version of anything in the open source world.

Ubuntu and Debian

Ubuntu and Debian are distinct but parallel and closely linked systems. The Ubuntu project seeks to complement the Debian project in the following areas:

Package selection

Ubuntu does not provide security updates and professional support for every package available in the open source world, but selects a complete set of packages making up a solid and comprehensive desktop system and provides support for that set of packages.

For users that want access to every known package, Ubuntu provides a "universe" component (set of packages) where users of Ubuntu systems install the latest version of any package that is not in the supported set. Most of the packages in Ubuntu universe are also in Debian, although there are other sources for universe too. See the Ubuntu Components page for more detail on the structure of the Ubuntu web distribution.

Releases

Ubuntu makes a release every six months, and supports those releases for 18 months with daily security fixes and patches to critical bugs.

As Ubuntu prepares for release, we "freeze" a snapshot of Debian's development archive. We start from the development version in order to give ourselves the freedom to make our own decisions with regard to release management, independent of Debian's release-in-preparation. This is necessary because our release criteria are very different from Debian's.

As a simple example, a package might be excluded from Debian 'testing' due to a build failure on any of the 10+ architectures supported by Debian, but it is still suitable for Ubuntu if it builds and works on only three of them. A package will also be prevented from entering Debian 'testing' if it has release-critical bugs according to Debian criteria, but a bug which is release-critical for Debian may not be as important for Ubuntu.

As a community, we choose places to diverge from Debian in ways that minimize the difference between Debian and Ubuntu. For example, we usually choose to update to the very latest version of Gnome rather than the older version in Debian, and we might do the same for key other pieces of infrastructure such as X or GCC. Those decisions are listed as Feature Goals for that release, and we work as a community to make sure that they are in place before the release happens.

Development community

Many Ubuntu developers are also recognized members of the Debian community. Through their work on Ubuntu they continue to stay active in contributing to Debian and they often continue to work directly in Debian.

When a bug is reported in the Debian bug tracking system and then later fixed in Ubuntu, the fixes are often automatically communicated back directly to the debian bug system. Patches are also published automatically on patches.ubuntu.com. The long term goal of that work is to ensure that patches made by the full-time Ubuntu team members are immediately also included in debian packages where the debian maintainer likes the work.

In Ubuntu, team members can make a change to any package, even if it is one maintained by someone else. Once you are an Ubuntu maintainer it's encouraged that you fix problems you encounter, although we also encourage polite discussions between people with an interest in a given package to improve cooperation and reduce friction between maintainers.

Freedom and Philosophy

Debian and Ubuntu are grounded on the same free software philosophy. Both groups are explicitly committed to building an operating system of free software.

Differences between the groups lie in their treatment of non-computer applications (like documentation, fonts and binary firmware) and non-free software. Debian distributes a small amount of non-free software from their Internet servers. Ubuntu will also distribute binary drivers in the "restricted" component on its Internet servers but will not distribute any other software applications that do not meet its own Ubuntu Licensing Guidelines.

Ubuntu and other Debian derivatives

There are many other distributions that also share the same basic infrastructure (package and archive format). Ubuntu is distinguished from them in a number of ways.

First, Ubuntu makes patches available to Debian as soon as bugs are fixed during the Ubuntu release process, not just when the release is actually made. With other Debian-style distributions, the source code and patches are made available in a "big bang" at release time, which makes them difficult to integrate into the upstream HEAD. Ubuntu patches are published automatically on an ongoing basis.

Second, Ubuntu includes a number of contributors who are also Debian developers. Many of the other distributions that use Debian-style packaging do not include any active debian contributors.

Third, Ubuntu makes much more frequent and fresher releases. Our release policy of releasing every six months is (at the time of writing) unique in the Linux distribution world. Ubuntu aims to provide you with a regular stable and security-supported snapshot of the best of the open source world.


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2 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 13:04 
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好多啊 ,大家一起来帮忙吧!
下午上课结束得帮同学装win7(承认自己又犯贱了 :em06 ……)估计今天没有什么时间全部完成了……


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 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 13:46 
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牛奶夹心饼翻译版~~~大家凑合凑合啊~~~有问题的直接说,本人刚好过六级而已~~~还得多亏星爷才翻译完,花了一个多小时~~~

Debian and Ubuntu

Ubuntu and Debian are closely related. Ubuntu builds on the foundations of Debian architecture and infrastructure, with a different community and release process.
Ubuntu和Debian 的联系非常紧密。Ubuntu 建立在Debian的基础之上,但是它有自己的社区和发行程序

About Debian
关于Debian
Debian is "the rock upon which Ubuntu is built".
Debian是Ubuntu建立的磐石(意指坚实的基础)

Debian is a volunteer project to develop a GNU/Linux distribution. Debian was started more than a decade ago and has since grown to comprise more than 1000 members with official developer status and many more volunteers and contributors. It has expanded to encompass over 20,000 "packages" of free and open source applications and documentation.
Debian是一个开发GNU/Linux发行版的志愿者项目。Debian开始于十多年前,现在已经壮大到拥有超过1000名官方开发者,还有海量的志愿者和贡献者。它现在已经扩大到包含超过2,000个免费和开源的应用和文档

About Ubuntu
关于Ubuntu
Sponsored by Canonical, the Ubuntu project attempts to work with Debian to address the issues that keep many users from using Debian. Ubuntu provides a system based on Debian with frequent time-based releases, corporate accountability, and a more considered desktop interface. Ubuntu provides users with a way to deploy Debian with security fixes, release critical bug fixes, a consistent desktop interface, and to never be more than six months away from the latest version of anything in the open source world.
由canonical公司赞助,Ubuntu项目致力于和Debian协作,寻找和解决使人们不用Debian的问题。Ubuntu提供了一个基于Debian的按时更新,由企业负责和更加亲和的桌面界面
Ubuntu and Debian
Ubuntu和Debian

Ubuntu and Debian are distinct but parallel and closely linked systems. The Ubuntu project seeks to complement the Debian project in the following areas:
Ubuntu和Debian是两个不同但很类似,并且联系紧密的两个系统。Ubuntu项目在以下方面寻找Debian项目的补充

Package selection
软件包的选择

Ubuntu does not provide security updates and professional support for every package available in the open source world, but selects a complete set of packages making up a solid and comprehensive desktop system and provides support for that set of packages.
Ubuntu不为开源世界的每个可用包提供安全更新和专业支持,而是挑选了一套软件包来组建一个固定和全功能的桌面系统,并为这套软件包提供支持

For users that want access to every known package, Ubuntu provides a "universe" component (set of packages) where users of Ubuntu systems install the latest version of any package that is not in the supported set. Most of the packages in Ubuntu universe are also in Debian, although there are other sources for universe too. See the Ubuntu Components page for more detail on the structure of the Ubuntu web distribution.
对于想使用没一个已知包的用户,Ubuntu提供了一个“universe”组件,用户可以用它安装最新版本的软件包,这些软件包都不被支持。大多数在Ubuntu universe中的软件包也可以在Debian中找到,尽管universe也有其他来源。你可以在Ubuntu的网站上的Components(组件)页查看更多细节。

Releases
版本
Ubuntu makes a release every six months, and supports those releases for 18 months with daily security fixes and patches to critical bugs.
Ubuntu每六个月发布一个新版本,并且为这些版本提供18个月的日常安全更新和修复重大bug的补丁

As Ubuntu prepares for release, we "freeze" a snapshot of Debian's development archive. We start from the development version in order to give ourselves the freedom to make our own decisions with regard to release management, independent of Debian's release-in-preparation. This is necessary because our release criteria are very different from Debian's.
Ubuntu准备发行的时候,我们会“冻结”Debian的某个开发档快照。我们从开发版开始,是为了给我们自己在版本管理问题上做决定的自由,不受Debian的待发行版的影响。

As a simple example, a package might be excluded from Debian 'testing' due to a build failure on any of the 10+ architectures supported by Debian, but it is still suitable for Ubuntu if it builds and works on only three of them. A package will also be prevented from entering Debian 'testing' if it has release-critical bugs according to Debian criteria, but a bug which is release-critical for Debian may not be as important for Ubuntu.
举个简单的例子,某个软件包由于在超过十个Debian的版本上编译(?)失败而被排除在Debian的‘testing’列表之外,但是如果能在只有三个Ubuntu版本上编译和运作,那么它仍然适用与Ubuntu。某个软件包根据Debian的评判标准存在release-critical bugs也会被阻止进入Debian的“testing”目录,但是一个release-criticalbug对于Ubuntu来说可能不是那么重要。

As a community, we choose places to diverge from Debian in ways that minimize the difference between Debian and Ubuntu. For example, we usually choose to update to the very latest version of Gnome rather than the older version in Debian, and we might do the same for key other pieces of infrastructure such as X or GCC. Those decisions are listed as Feature Goals for that release, and we work as a community to make sure that they are in place before the release happens.
作为一个社区组织,我们选择了一个最小化Debian和Ubuntu差异的方式来区分Debian以定位自己。(这一句实在是别扭得很啊啊啊啊)

Development community
开发社区

Many Ubuntu developers are also recognized members of the Debian community. Through their work on Ubuntu they continue to stay active in contributing to Debian and they often continue to work directly in Debian.
许多Ubuntu的开发者同时也是Debian社区的注册会员。尽管他们努力地在做Ubuntu,但是他们也继续积极参与为Debian做贡献,而且他们也常常继续直接在Debian里工作

When a bug is reported in the Debian bug tracking system and then later fixed in Ubuntu, the fixes are often automatically communicated back directly to the debian bug system. Patches are also published automatically on patches.ubuntu.com. The long term goal of that work is to ensure that patches made by the full-time Ubuntu team members are immediately also included in debian packages where the debian maintainer likes the work.
当debian的bug追踪系统报告了一个bug,随后在Ubuntu中被修复了,那么这些修复常常会自动反馈到Debian的bug系统中

In Ubuntu, team members can make a change to any package, even if it is one maintained by someone else. Once you are an Ubuntu maintainer it's encouraged that you fix problems you encounter, although we also encourage polite discussions between people with an interest in a given package to improve cooperation and reduce friction between maintainers.
在ubuntu中,队员可以修改任何软件包,及时这个包是由另外一个人维护的。如果你是Ubuntu的维护者,我们鼓励你解决你遇到的问题,尽管我们也鼓励对某个包有兴趣的人们之间的友好的讨论,以减少维护者之间的摩擦。

Freedom and Philosophy
自由和哲学
Debian and Ubuntu are grounded on the same free software philosophy. Both groups are explicitly committed to building an operating system of free software.
Debian和Ubuntu基于相同的自由软件哲学。两个组织都明确表示要建立一个自由软件操作系统

Differences between the groups lie in their treatment of non-computer applications (like documentation, fonts and binary firmware) and non-free software. Debian distributes a small amount of non-free software from their Internet servers. Ubuntu will also distribute binary drivers in the "restricted" component on its Internet servers but will not distribute any other software applications that do not meet its own Ubuntu Licensing Guidelines.
组织之间的不同在于他们对非计算机应用(比如文档,字体和二进制韧体???)和非自由软件的态度。Debian 从他们的服务器上分发少量的非自由软件。Ubuntu也会在“restricted(受限)”组件中分发Internet服务器上的二进制驱动,但是不会分发任何不符合它自己的Ubuntu许可证指导方针的软件应用。

Ubuntu and other Debian derivatives
Ubuntu和其他的Debian衍生版

There are many other distributions that also share the same basic infrastructure (package and archive format). Ubuntu is distinguished from them in a number of ways.
有很多其他的发行版有相同的基础结构?(软件包和档案格式)。Ubuntu和他们有许多方面的不同。

First, Ubuntu makes patches available to Debian as soon as bugs are fixed during the Ubuntu release process, not just when the release is actually made. With other Debian-style distributions, the source code and patches are made available in a "big bang" at release time, which makes them difficult to integrate into the upstream HEAD. Ubuntu patches are published automatically on an ongoing basis.
首先,Ubuntu 在它的发行过程中,bug一被修复,Ubuntu就会制作Debian可用的补丁,而不仅仅是在新版本制作完成之后。对于其他的Debian式发行版,源代码和补丁数量在发布的时候程大爆炸式出现,这使得他们(是指源码和补丁吧?)难以融入上游。Ubuntu的补丁在持续进行的基础上放出。

Second, Ubuntu includes a number of contributors who are also Debian developers. Many of the other distributions that use Debian-style packaging do not include any active debian contributors.
其次,Ubuntu容纳许多同时也是Debian开发者的贡献者。许多其他用Debian式打包的发行版没有Debian贡献者。

Third, Ubuntu makes much more frequent and fresher releases. Our release policy of releasing every six months is (at the time of writing) unique in the Linux distribution world. Ubuntu aims to provide you with a regular stable and security-supported snapshot of the best of the open source world.
第三,Ubuntu频繁发布了更多更新的版本。(这句译了几次~~~)我们每六个月发布一个新版本的发行策略在Linux发行版世界中是绝无仅有的。


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4 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 14:26 
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Sponsored by Canonical, the Ubuntu project attempts to work with Debian to address the issues that keep many users from using Debian. Ubuntu provides a system based on Debian with frequent time-based releases, corporate accountability, and a more considered desktop interface. Ubuntu provides users with a way to deploy Debian with security fixes, release critical bug fixes, a consistent desktop interface, and to never be more than six months away from the latest version of anything in the open source world.
Ubuntu项目由canonical公司赞助,致力于和Debian协作,让更多的人使用Debian。在Debian的基础上,Ubuntu负责定期发行拥有成熟桌面应用的新版本。Ubuntu使用户能够在拥有安全补丁、严重bug得到修补、协调的桌面环境的的前提下部署Debian,并且所有来自开源世界的软件的更新期间不会超过6个月。


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最后由 NetDreamer 编辑于 2009-10-21 14:28,总共编辑了 1 次

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5 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 14:28 
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支持牛奶夹心饼。。。顺便学习下。 :em03


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 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 15:01 
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多谢 NetDreamer 。我漏了好大一段~~~估计是吃饭回来就直接跳过去了 :em06 你翻译好顺畅,比我的好多多了。


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7 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 16:17 
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我改牛奶夹心饼翻译版~~~大家凑合凑合啊~~~有问题的直接说,本人刚好过六级而已~~~还得多亏星爷才翻译完,花了一个多小时~~~
花我10分钟
Debian and Ubuntu

Ubuntu and Debian are closely related. Ubuntu builds on the foundations of Debian architecture and infrastructure, with a different community and release process.
Ubuntu和Debian 联系非常紧密。Ubuntu 建立在Debian的基础之上,但是拥有自己的社区和进度。

About Debian
关于Debian
Debian is "the rock upon which Ubuntu is built".
Debian是 “Ubuntu的磐石”

Debian is a volunteer project to develop a GNU/Linux distribution. Debian was started more than a decade ago and has since grown to comprise more than 1000 members with official developer status and many more volunteers and contributors. It has expanded to encompass over 20,000 "packages" of free and open source applications and documentation.
Debian是一个志愿者项目,主要开发GNU/Linux发行版。Debian开始于十多年前,现在已经壮大到拥有超过1000名官方开发者,还有海量的志愿者和贡献者。它现在包含超过2万个自由和开源的应用程序和文档,并封装成“包”。

About Ubuntu
关于Ubuntu
Sponsored by Canonical, the Ubuntu project attempts to work with Debian to address the issues that keep many users from using Debian. Ubuntu provides a system based on Debian with frequent time-based releases, corporate accountability, and a more considered desktop interface. Ubuntu provides users with a way to deploy Debian with security fixes, release critical bug fixes, a consistent desktop interface, and to never be more than six months away from the latest version of anything in the open source world.
由Canonical公司赞助的Ubuntu项目致力于和Debian协作,寻找和解决使人们不用Debian的问题。Ubuntu提供了一个基于Debian的按时更新,由企业负责和更加亲和的桌面界面,并且不会被开源世界的最新进展落下6个月以上。
Ubuntu and Debian
Ubuntu和Debian

Ubuntu and Debian are distinct but parallel and closely linked systems. The Ubuntu project seeks to complement the Debian project in the following areas:
Ubuntu和Debian是两个不同但很类似,并且联系紧密的系统。Ubuntu项目对Debian项目的补充在如下方面

Package selection
软件包的选择

Ubuntu does not provide security updates and professional support for every package available in the open source world, but selects a complete set of packages making up a solid and comprehensive desktop system and provides support for that set of packages.
Ubuntu不为开源世界的每个可用包提供安全更新和专业支持,而是挑选了一套软件包来组建一个稳定、全功能的桌面系统,并为这套软件包提供支持。

For users that want access to every known package, Ubuntu provides a "universe" component (set of packages) where users of Ubuntu systems install the latest version of any package that is not in the supported set. Most of the packages in Ubuntu universe are also in Debian, although there are other sources for universe too. See the Ubuntu Components page for more detail on the structure of the Ubuntu web distribution.
对于想使用已知包的用户,Ubuntu提供了一个“universe”部分,用户可以通过它获取这些不被支持的软件包。大多数在Ubuntu universe中的软件包也可以在Debian中找到,尽管universe也有其他来源。你可以在Ubuntu的网站上的Components(组件)页查看更多细节。

Releases
版本
Ubuntu makes a release every six months, and supports those releases for 18 months with daily security fixes and patches to critical bugs.
Ubuntu每六个月发布一个新版本,并且为这些版本提供18个月的日常安全更新和修复重大bug的补丁

As Ubuntu prepares for release, we "freeze" a snapshot of Debian's development archive. We start from the development version in order to give ourselves the freedom to make our own decisions with regard to release management, independent of Debian's release-in-preparation. This is necessary because our release criteria are very different from Debian's.
Ubuntu准备发行的时候,我们会“冻结”某个从Debian截取的版本。我们从开发版开始,是为了给我们自己在版本管理问题上做决定的自由,不受Debian的待发行版的影响。

As a simple example, a package might be excluded from Debian 'testing' due to a build failure on any of the 10+ architectures supported by Debian, but it is still suitable for Ubuntu if it builds and works on only three of them. A package will also be prevented from entering Debian 'testing' if it has release-critical bugs according to Debian criteria, but a bug which is release-critical for Debian may not be as important for Ubuntu.
举个简单的例子,某个软件包由于在超过十个Debian的构架版本上编译失败而被排除在Debian的‘testing’列表之外,但是如果能在只有三个Ubuntu版本上编译和运作,那么它仍然适用与Ubuntu。某个软件包根据Debian的评判标准存在release-critical bugs也会被阻止进入Debian的“testing”目录,但是一个release-criticalbug对于Ubuntu来说可能不是那么重要。

As a community, we choose places to diverge from Debian in ways that minimize the difference between Debian and Ubuntu. For example, we usually choose to update to the very latest version of Gnome rather than the older version in Debian, and we might do the same for key other pieces of infrastructure such as X or GCC. Those decisions are listed as Feature Goals for that release, and we work as a community to make sure that they are in place before the release happens.
作为一个社区组织,我们选择了一个使差异的最小化的方式,以定位自己而区分于Debian。例如,我们选择更新至最新版本的Gnome而不是Debian那样较为过时的版本,同样的策略也应用在X和GCC上。

Development community
开发社区

Many Ubuntu developers are also recognized members of the Debian community. Through their work on Ubuntu they continue to stay active in contributing to Debian and they often continue to work directly in Debian.
许多Ubuntu的开发者同时也是Debian社区的注册会员。尽管他们努力地在做Ubuntu,但是他们也继续积极参与为Debian做贡献,而且他们也常常继续直接在Debian工作。

When a bug is reported in the Debian bug tracking system and then later fixed in Ubuntu, the fixes are often automatically communicated back directly to the debian bug system. Patches are also published automatically on patches.ubuntu.com. The long term goal of that work is to ensure that patches made by the full-time Ubuntu team members are immediately also included in debian packages where the debian maintainer likes the work.
当debian的bug追踪系统报告了一个bug,随后在Ubuntu中被修复了,那么这些修复常常会自动反馈到Debian的bug系统中

In Ubuntu, team members can make a change to any package, even if it is one maintained by someone else. Once you are an Ubuntu maintainer it's encouraged that you fix problems you encounter, although we also encourage polite discussions between people with an interest in a given package to improve cooperation and reduce friction between maintainers.
在ubuntu中,成员可以修改任何软件包,即使这个包是由另外一个人维护的。如果你是Ubuntu的维护者,我们鼓励你解决你遇到的问题,尽管我们也鼓励对某个包有兴趣的人们之间的友好的讨论,以减少维护者之间的摩擦。

Freedom and Philosophy
自由和哲学
Debian and Ubuntu are grounded on the same free software philosophy. Both groups are explicitly committed to building an operating system of free software.
Debian和Ubuntu基于相同的自由软件哲学。两个组织都明确表示要建立一个自由软件操作系统

Differences between the groups lie in their treatment of non-computer applications (like documentation, fonts and binary firmware) and non-free software. Debian distributes a small amount of non-free software from their Internet servers. Ubuntu will also distribute binary drivers in the "restricted" component on its Internet servers but will not distribute any other software applications that do not meet its own Ubuntu Licensing Guidelines.
组织之间的不同在于他们对非计算机应用(比如文档,字体和二进制固件)和非自由软件的态度。Debian 从他们的服务器上分发少量的非自由软件。Ubuntu也会在“restricted(受限)”组件中分发Internet服务器上的二进制驱动,但是不会分发任何不符合它自己的Ubuntu许可证指导方针的软件应用。

Ubuntu and other Debian derivatives
Ubuntu和其他的Debian衍生版

There are many other distributions that also share the same basic infrastructure (package and archive format). Ubuntu is distinguished from them in a number of ways.
有很多其他的发行版有相同的基础结构(软件包和档案格式)。Ubuntu和他们有许多方面的不同。

First, Ubuntu makes patches available to Debian as soon as bugs are fixed during the Ubuntu release process, not just when the release is actually made. With other Debian-style distributions, the source code and patches are made available in a "big bang" at release time, which makes them difficult to integrate into the upstream HEAD. Ubuntu patches are published automatically on an ongoing basis.
首先,Ubuntu 在它的发行过程中,bug一被修复,Ubuntu就会制作Debian可用的补丁,而不仅仅是在新版本制作完成之后。对于其他的Debian式发行版,源代码和补丁数量在发布的时候程大爆炸式出现,这使得它们难以融入上游。Ubuntu在持续进行的基础上放出补丁。

Second, Ubuntu includes a number of contributors who are also Debian developers. Many of the other distributions that use Debian-style packaging do not include any active debian contributors.
其次,Ubuntu拥有许多同时也是Debian开发者的贡献者。许多其他用Debian式打包的发行版没有活跃的Debian贡献者。

Third, Ubuntu makes much more frequent and fresher releases. Our release policy of releasing every six months is (at the time of writing) unique in the Linux distribution world. Ubuntu aims to provide you with a regular stable and security-supported snapshot of the best of the open source world.
第三,Ubuntu频繁发布了更多更新的版本。我们每六个月发布一个新版本的发行策略在Linux发行版世界中是绝无仅有的。Ubuntu的目标是周期性发布稳定安全的开源世界“缩影”。[/quote]


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『这个世界都是我的 ,我爱你们』

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8 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 17:07 
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:em11 学习了 ~


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 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-21 18:51 
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:em33 累死了,改了罗姐的开头部分:
引用:
Debian and Ubuntu
Debian和Ubuntu

Ubuntu and Debian are closely related. Ubuntu builds on the foundations of Debian architecture and infrastructure, with a different community and release process.
Ubuntu和Debian联系紧密,Ubuntu建立在Debian结构的基础之上,但是有着不同的社区和进度。

About Debian
关于Debian

Debian is "the rock upon which Ubuntu is built".
Debian是“Ubuntu的奠基石”。

Debian is a volunteer project to develop a GNU/Linux distribution. Debian was started more than a decade ago and has since grown to comprise more than 1000 members with official developer status and many more volunteers and contributors. It has expanded to encompass over 20,000 "packages" of free and open source applications and documentation.
Debian是一个致力于开发GNU/Linux发行版的志愿者项目。Debian项目开始于十多年前,自那时起到现在已经壮大到拥有超过1000名官方开发者,还有大量的志愿者和贡献者。它现在已经扩展到包含超过2万个自由和开源的应用程序和文档,并封装成“包”。

About Ubuntu
关于Ubuntu

Sponsored by Canonical, the Ubuntu project attempts to work with Debian to address the issues that keep many users from using Debian. Ubuntu provides a system based on Debian with frequent time-based releases, corporate accountability, and a more considered desktop interface. Ubuntu provides users with a way to deploy Debian with security fixes, release critical bug fixes, a consistent desktop interface, and to never be more than six months away from the latest version of anything in the open source world.
由Canonical公司赞助的Ubuntu项目致力于和Debian协作,集中寻找人们不使用Debian的原因并解决之。Ubuntu提供了一个基于Debian的系统,它按照时间常年发行,由公司为其负责,并提供更加亲和的桌面界面。Ubuntu向用户提供一种部署Debian的方法,使其具有安全更新、发行版严重Bug修补、始终如一的桌面环境,以及开源世界6个月以内的所有最新软件。


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10 楼 
 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-10-23 19:20 
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Freedom and Philosophy
自由与理念

Debian and Ubuntu are grounded on the same free software philosophy. Both groups are explicitly committed to building an operating system of free software.
Debian 和 Ubuntu 基于相同的自由软件理念。两个组织都明确表示要建立一个自由软件操作系统

Differences between the groups lie in their treatment of non-computer applications (like documentation, fonts and binary firmware) and non-free software. Debian distributes a small amount of non-free software from their Internet servers. Ubuntu will also distribute binary drivers in the "restricted" component on its Internet servers but will not distribute any other software applications that do not meet its own Ubuntu Licensing Guidelines.

组织之间的不同在于他们对非计算机应用(比如文档,字体和二进制固件)和非自由软件的态度。 Debian 从他们的服务器上分发少量的非自由软件。Ubuntu也会在“restricted(受限)”组件中分发Internet服务器上的二进制驱动程序,但是不会发布任何不符合 Ubuntu 自身许可证发放指引的软件应用。

修改了一点点.......支持一下 :em11 :em11 :em11


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 文章标题 : Re: [翻译]Debian and Ubuntu
帖子发表于 : 2009-11-29 11:49 
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Ubuntu and Debian are closely related. Ubuntu builds on the foundations of Debian architecture and infrastructure, with a different community and release process.
Ubuntu和Debian是密切相关。Ubuntu以Debian的架构为基础,但不是一个社区的,发布流程也不一样。

About Debian
关于Debian

Debian is "the rock upon which Ubuntu is built".
Debian是“Ubuntu建立的磐石”。

Debian is a volunteer project to develop a GNU/Linux distribution. Debian was started more than a decade ago and has since grown to comprise more than 1000 members with official developer status and many more volunteers and contributors. It has expanded to encompass over 20,000 "packages" of free and open source applications and documentation.
Debian是志愿者发起的Linux版本。Debian开始于十几年前,已经是核心开发人员、志愿者以及有贡献的人超过一千。Debian已经有超过20000开源应用软件和文档。

About Ubuntu
关于Ubuntu

Sponsored by Canonical, the Ubuntu project attempts to work with Debian to address the issues that keep many users from using Debian. Ubuntu provides a system based on Debian with frequent time-based releases, corporate accountability, and a more considered desktop interface. Ubuntu provides users with a way to deploy Debian with security fixes, release critical bug fixes, a consistent desktop interface, and to never be more than six months away from the latest version of anything in the open source world.
由Canonical公司赞助,Ubuntu想与Debian一起发展,防止许多用户放弃Debian。Ubuntu提供了基于Debian有公司负责按时发布有更具亲和力的桌面的系统。Ubuntu给用户提供安全修复,关键性错误修复,一致性高的桌面环境,去配置Debian的方法,而且离上次的发行版本不超过六个月。

Ubuntu and Debian

Ubuntu and Debian are distinct but parallel and closely linked systems. The Ubuntu project seeks to complement the Debian project in the following areas:
Ubuntu和Debian虽然不同,但是是密切相关的系统。Ubuntu项目旨在弥补Debian项目在以下的不足:

Package selection
安装包的选择

Ubuntu does not provide security updates and professional support for every package available in the open source world, but selects a complete set of packages making up a solid and comprehensive desktop system and provides support for that set of packages.
Ubuntu不会为开源的每一个包提供安全更新和专业支持,而是选择了一些能够建立具体而且全面的桌面系统的包,并且为它们提供支持。

For users that want access to every known package, Ubuntu provides a "universe" component (set of packages) where users of Ubuntu systems install the latest version of any package that is not in the supported set. Most of the packages in Ubuntu universe are also in Debian, although there are other sources for universe too. See the Ubuntu Components page for more detail on the structure of the Ubuntu web distribution.
对于那些想访问已知包的用户,Ubuntu提供了"universe"组件,它为用户提供了Ubuntu不支持的包的最新版本。

Releases
发布

Ubuntu makes a release every six months, and supports those releases for 18 months with daily security fixes and patches to critical bugs.
Ubuntu每六个月发布一次,接下来的18个月里为这些发行版本提供日常安的全修复和主要漏洞补丁。

As Ubuntu prepares for release, we "freeze" a snapshot of Debian's development archive. We start from the development version in order to give ourselves the freedom to make our own decisions with regard to release management, independent of Debian's release-in-preparation. This is necessary because our release criteria are very different from Debian's.
为了准备Ubuntu发布,我们截取Debian某个版本。我们从开发版开始独立开发,以便我们决定版本发行。

As a simple example, a package might be excluded from Debian 'testing' due to a build failure on any of the 10+ architectures supported by Debian, but it is still suitable for Ubuntu if it builds and works on only three of them. A package will also be prevented from entering Debian 'testing' if it has release-critical bugs according to Debian criteria, but a bug which is release-critical for Debian may not be as important for Ubuntu.
举个简单例子,某个软件包由于在超过十个Debian的构架版本上编译失败而可能被排除在Debian的‘testing’列表之外,如果在Ubuntu当中的3个架构上编译成功,那么它仍然适用于Ubuntu。如果一个软件包被标准判为有严重错误,那它会被排除在Debian的‘testing’列表之外,在Debian上有严重错误的不一定在Ubuntu也有错误。

As a community, we choose places to diverge from Debian in ways that minimize the difference between Debian and Ubuntu. For example, we usually choose to update to the very latest version of Gnome rather than the older version in Debian, and we might do the same for key other pieces of infrastructure such as X or GCC. Those decisions are listed as Feature Goals for that release, and we work as a community to make sure that they are in place before the release happens.
作为一个社区,我们选择与Debian不同的最小化方式,以区分与Debian。例如,我们经常更新至最新版本的Gnome,而不像Debian用过时的版本。我们在其它的组件上也使用了同样的策略,例如X和GCC。

Development community
开发社区

Many Ubuntu developers are also recognized members of the Debian community. Through their work on Ubuntu they continue to stay active in contributing to Debian and they often continue to work directly in Debian.
许多Ubuntu研发人员也是Debian社区的成员。虽然他们在Ubuntu上的工作,但他们继续积极为Debian贡献力量。

When a bug is reported in the Debian bug tracking system and then later fixed in Ubuntu, the fixes are often automatically communicated back directly to the debian bug system. Patches are also published automatically on patches.ubuntu.com. The long term goal of that work is to ensure that patches made by the full-time Ubuntu team members are immediately also included in debian packages where the debian maintainer likes the work.
当Debian的Bug追踪系统报告一个Bug后,Ubuntu也修复了那个Bug,修复常常直接自动反馈给Debian的Bug追踪系统。补丁也会自动在patches.ubuntu.com上发布。这个工作的长期目标是,由Ubuntu全职开发人员制作的补丁能直接包括在Debian的软件包中。

In Ubuntu, team members can make a change to any package, even if it is one maintained by someone else. Once you are an Ubuntu maintainer it's encouraged that you fix problems you encounter, although we also encourage polite discussions between people with an interest in a given package to improve cooperation and reduce friction between maintainers.
在Ubuntu,开发团队的成员可以修改任何一个软件包,即使这个软件包由另一个人维护。如果你是Ubuntu维护人员,我们鼓励你解决自己遇到的问题,虽然我们也鼓励人们(礼貌地)对一个软件包进行讨论使得人们改进合作,减少磨擦。

Freedom and Philosophy
自由与哲学

Debian and Ubuntu are grounded on the same free software philosophy. Both groups are explicitly committed to building an operating system of free software.
Debian和Ubuntu是基于相同的自由软件哲学。这两个团队都明确承诺要建立一个自由软件的操作系统。

Differences between the groups lie in their treatment of non-computer applications (like documentation, fonts and binary firmware) and non-free software. Debian distributes a small amount of non-free software from their Internet servers. Ubuntu will also distribute binary drivers in the "restricted" component on its Internet servers but will not distribute any other software applications that do not meet its own Ubuntu Licensing Guidelines.
这两个团队之间的不同在于他们对非计算机应用(比如文档,字体和二进制固件)和非自由软件的态度。Debian在他们的服务器上提供少量的非自由软件。Ubuntu也在他们的服务器上提供受限的二进制驱动程序,但不会提供不符合Ubuntu Licensing Guidelines的应用软件。

Ubuntu and other Debian derivatives
Ubuntu和其它Debian衍生版

There are many other distributions that also share the same basic infrastructure (package and archive format). Ubuntu is distinguished from them in a number of ways.
还有许多其他发行的也用了同样的基本结构(软件包和档案格式)。Ubuntu在很多方面与它们不同。

First, Ubuntu makes patches available to Debian as soon as bugs are fixed during the Ubuntu release process, not just when the release is actually made. With other Debian-style distributions, the source code and patches are made available in a "big bang" at release time, which makes them difficult to integrate into the upstream HEAD. Ubuntu patches are published automatically on an ongoing basis.
首先,Ubuntu 在它的发行过程中,bug一被修复,Ubuntu就会制作Debian可用的补丁,而不仅仅是在新版本制作完成之后。对于其他的Debian式发行版,源代码和补丁数量在发布的时候程大爆炸式出现,这使得它们(可能指源码和补丁)难以融入上游。Ubuntu的补丁是持续进行地上放出。

Second, Ubuntu includes a number of contributors who are also Debian developers. Many of the other distributions that use Debian-style packaging do not include any active debian contributors.
第二,Ubutnu的很多贡献者也是Debian的开发者。很多其它的Debian式软件包结构并没有Debian的积极贡献者。

Third, Ubuntu makes much more frequent and fresher releases. Our release policy of releasing every six months is (at the time of writing) unique in the Linux distribution world. Ubuntu aims to provide you with a regular stable and security-supported snapshot of the best of the open source world.
第三,Ubuntu发新版本更频繁更新鲜。我们每六个月发行一版的策略是很特别的。Ubutnu旨在为您提供开源世界稳定安全最好的发行版本。


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