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 文章标题 : [wiki]词汇表
帖子发表于 : 2005-04-16 22:08 
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This is the Ubuntu Glossary. It is based on the Debian GNU/Linux glossary written by the NewbieDoc project. It tries to sum up a few of the words that are usually common in the Ubuntu, Debian and more Linux communities, but not always explained.

Thanks to Romain Lerallut who authored the original version for NewbieDoc and to all the Newbiedocwriters who've contributed.
A

access permissions

A set of permissions associated with every file or directory, (including "special files"), that determines who can Read, Write or Execute the file. Only the owner of the file or the super-user can modify those permissions.

The format of the access permissions, as shown with ls -l, is a list of 10 symbols:

drwxr-xr-xdrwxr-xr-x

The first symbol is either - or d, designating whether or not the file in question is actually a directory. After that, there are three sets of three symbols each, telling you whether a file (or directory) is readable, writable, and executable. The three sets represent the owner, group and "everything else" permissions, respectively. For example, the above example represents a file that

*

Is a directory
*

Gives the owner read, write and executable permissions
*

Gives the group read and execute permissions
*

Gives everyone else read and execute permissions

See Also Owner, groups.
AFAIK

As Far As I Know
ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The standard for representing letters, numbers and control characters on 7-bits (8 bits for accentuated character sets).

An ascii text file is a file that can directly be read by basic text editors, such as (cat, more, joe,

See Also Unicode.
autocompletion

A feature offered by most Shells (including but not restricted to bash, tcsh, ksh and especially zsh) that allows the shell to complete a command when it can be done unambiguously. It sometimes offers a list of the possible completions. Check the Manpage for your shell for exact syntax and possible uses. With bash and tcsh, completion is achieved by pressing once on the TAB key. With ksh, it's a double strike of the ESC key...check the Manpage.

B

background

A process is said to be running "in the background" when it is not occupying a terminal. Such programs include daemons, as well as other stuff. You can put a running program into the background in bash with Ctrl+Z. Bash will list the program name and a number you can use to bring the program back to the foreground, with fg <number>.
binary, binaries

Binary files are files that are not written in ASCII (human-readable) format, but in succession of bytes. Binary files include compile executable files, compressed files (including images), and some data files that don't need/allow easy review.(Or that have special requirements: ciphering, size, etc...)
BTW

By The Way

C

C Language

One of the most powerful computer languages ever invented. Linux is written in C, as well as almost all UNIX systems: it is thus very portable among UNIX architectures. In fact, C was invented as a language which would make writing an operating system easier, and it was used to create UNIX in the first place. A programmer will type C Source code source code in a text editor and then compile it into a binary executable form.

See Also Interpreters.
chown

The chown command changes the owner of a file or directory to another user. Usage: chown <new owner> <file/directory>
Compiler

A compiler translates a Source code (ie human readable, ASCII) into binary (machine) code, to be executed. GCC is the GNU C Compiler, it is issued with most linux distributions.

D

daemon

A program that stays in the background, and provides services for users. Daemons are usually asleep, and wake up only when a task is assigned to them.

A good example is the printer daemon, that spends its time waiting for documents to send to the printer.

See Also background.
Debian

Debian is the distribution upon which Ubuntu is based. Like Ubuntu, Debian contains only Free software.

For any and all info, check out http://www.debian.org

There are simultaneously 3 releases of Debian GNU/Linux. One is the "stable", one the accordingly aptly named "unstable", the middle being held by "testing". The stable one is one in which development is stopped and packages are upgraded only for security-related bug fixing purposes. The "unstable" is the development one. In the "testing" release can be found packages that have survived 14 days of hard labor in the unstable area and that have been deemed fit for service.

Debian was created in 1993 by Ian Murdock. It was named after him and his wife Debra: Deb-ian (pronounce it deb-ee-ann).
Dependencies

A dependency is a "link" between two packages, mainly when a package is required for another to work or to be installed. (debconf is used to configure a number of software. It is written in perl so it depends on package perl. Packages depending on debconf, also then depend on perl, which depends on.....).

Dependencies also refer to conflicting software or versions. You can't easily remove a package if other packages depend on it. No package management programs will allow this to happen without a command to ignore dependencies.

See Also Packages.
/dev

/dev contains "pseudo files" that are really gateways into peripherals. Most peripherals are "talked to" by one or more /dev/* files. Among them:

*

/dev/fd0 = The first floppy disk drive (MS-DOS floppy A:)

/dev/fd1 = The second floppy disk drive (MS-DOS floppy B:)
*

/dev/hd[a-d] = IDE drives...
o

/dev/hda = controller 1 master drive
o

/dev/hdb = controller 1 slave drive
o

/dev/hdc = controller 2 master drive
o

/dev/hdd = controller 2 slave drive

to get to the partitions, append partition number:

/dev/hda1 /dev/hdb6 /dev/hdd19
*

/dev/sc[a-...] = SCSI drives
o

/dev/scd = SCSI device ID 4 (<== is this right?)

to get to the partitions, append partition number:

/dev/scd7 /dev/scd13
*

depending on your sound driver,these devices are used to send/retrieve sound data:
o

/dev/audio
o

/dev/dsp
o

/dev/mixer
o

/dev/sequencer
*

/dev/tty* = remote terminal interface

/dev/tty?? shows up with the `w` command when you log in via hardwired terminal
*

/dev/pts/* = pseudo-tty - ssh or (horrors!) telnet interface

/dev/pts/* lets you interact with a command shell just like a real tty (above)
*

/dev/mouse = your mouse COM port

Some of those files are symbolic links to others, for example:

/dev/mouse -> /dev/psaux for PS/2 mice

/dev/cdrom -> /dev/hdc if you have an IDE CD-Rom drive

And also many others that I don't know and that you won't have to know about unless you do wild things with your linux box ;-).
Distribution, distro, dists

"Linux" does not exist by itself. A distribution is

1.

a Linux Kernel, and
2.

applications (software).

The kind of software, the price of it (or lack thereof), details of the implementation, all depend on the distribution.

Among them: Debian, Red Hat, SuSe, Slackware, Mandrake ... and lots of others.

They mostly differ by the tools they offer to manage and or install the system.

E

Emacs

One of the most famous text-editors in the UNIX world. Part of the GNU project, there is a text-only version as well as a graphical one, with LOTS of "plugins" available to customize your own version. Emacs has the reputation of being able to do everything, up to but not excluding being the proverbial kitchen sink. Keep in mind that it is a fairly difficult editor to use, especially with all of the plugins installed. Many people stay away from Emacs, using the argument that an editor's job is to let you edit, and programs should do one thing well instead of everything.

See Also joe.
Ext3 FS

Third-Extended Filesystem, currently the standard filesystem used in Linux.

See Also Filesystem.

F

FAT

The standard name for the family of filesystems that use Microsoft's File Allocation Table format. For example, FAT16 is the old MS-DOS file system, VFAT is the filesystem introduced with Windows 95, allowing filenames longer than 8 characters, and FAT32 is the current filesystem for Windows systems, with some improvements on VFAT. Windows NT uses a different filesystem known as NTFS instead of a FAT system. Of course, all of these filesystems can be accessed from Linux, as long as you use the right tools (even though writing to NTFS filesystems may be risky).

See Also Filesystem.
Filesystem

a way of storing files on a medium which can be hard drives, floppies, cdroms etc,etc...

ext3 (3nd Extended) is currently the "native" FS for linux.

ReiserFS is a recent filesystem, designed for both speed and survivability.

fatand vfat are the linux names for the standard Microsoft(r) Windows(r) filesystems: fat16 (fat) and fat32 (vfat).

iso9660 is usually the standard for CD-ROMs.

smb,nfs,... are network filesystems, that allow computers to share data. 'smb' is Microsoft(r)'s well-known 'Network Neighborhood'.

proc,dev,... are also [special] filesystems.

Linux supports a great number of other file systems, at least in reading but most of them in read/write.
Free software

free is taken in the "freedom" sense.

It is a way of creating and distributing software with the source code and with the right to modify, upgrade and (re-)sell it as one sees fit to do, as long as the license (usually the GNU Public License (GPL)) comes along.

The term Open Source is also used to refer to software that is Free not because of ideological beliefs, but because it is a convenient way to develop programs. See http://www.opensource.org>.

Open Source software includes but is not restricted to Free Software. It is also easier to convince software companies to release their sources with the term 'Open Source' than with 'Free Software', or so is it thought.

check http://www.gnu.org
FWIW

For What It's Worth

G

GNU

Recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix"

The GNU project was initiated in 1984 by Richard M Stallman, a software developer at MIT's AI Lab. Its goal is to provide high-quality Free Software.
groups

User groups are a feature inherited from UNIX. Groups exist mostly so that resources can be shared between users belonging to the same group. For example, while files for our project are generally owned by the authors, they are part of the newbiedoc group so that any of us can work with them.

See Also access permissions.

H

Hard link

To the contrary of the symlink (symbolic link), here the actual data on disk is pointed to by more than one directory entry.

A symbolic link is merely a file that refers to another file; a hard link is actually the same exact information, located at the same spot on the disk.

With a hard link, you can pick any one of the instances of the file, and delete all the rest, and it'll still exist; with symbolic links, you can delete the target file and then all the symbolic links to it will point to a non-existent file!

But it's much easier to distinguish between an itty-bitty symbolic link and the target file, than the original doc and any other hard link to it. In fact, it's impossible, since they are the exact same thing!

Hard links are becoming more and more obsolete, in favor of soft links. I strongly suggest you use symlinks, unless you know what you are doing.

(the reference count , ie the number of hard links can be seen on the second column of an ls -l.

If you delete a file with a >1 reference count, it means the data is still stored somewhere, and accessible through another hard link,

if the reference count ==1, and you delete the file, the data will be lost and the space will actually be freed.

Don't mention reference counts smaller than 1 they are bad news :-)
HTH

Hope This Helps

I

IIRC

If I (Recall|Remember) Correctly
IMHO

In My (Honest|Humble) Opinion
Image

Computer Graphics: an image is a bidimensional array of colored/gray/BW points. It can be stored in a large numbre of formats (gif,png,jpg,tiff,bmp...) and can be displayed with an even larger number of tools. Web browsers, image viewers or image processing tools, such as The Gimp.

Files: an image is an exact copy of a chunk of data. Usually, images are used when creating bootable CDs or floppies, by copying an image of a linux kernel on them. Another use is when burning CDs: you first create a hard disk image of whatever you want to copy (files or raw audio data) and then you copy this image to the CDR.
Interpreters

a program that can executes commands read from a text file.

The shell is an interpreter, so are perl, tcl/tk, python, scheme, and to some extent, Java.

A shell (or perl, or any other) script does not need to be compiled, so it is very portable. However interpreted languages are usually not as fast as compiled languages such as C, and they depend on the presence of the interpreter.

J

Java

"A highly portable object-oriented language whose syntax is based on C++'s"

Java is currently a very popular language. It is object-oriented and was originally designed by Sun Microsystems to provide developers with a very portable language for use on a multitude of devices.

Traditionally, a Java program is interpreted by a Java Virtual Machine: a software emulation of a standard processing environment (processor, memory, stack, etc.).

The JVM is different on every architecture, but the Java program doesn't need any modification or compilation when switching from one architecture to another. This makes some Java programs exceptionally slow on some occasions, compared to equivalent programs in C++. However, its very high degree of portability make it ideal to expand the client-server software concept.

The latest advances in the development of Java now include direct compilation, making the programs much faster, and expansion in the computer graphics area.
joe

A text editor. ( Actually, it's "Joe's Own Editor" ). joe is based primarily on WordStar, a formerly very popular program for MS-DOS.

See Also Emacs, Recursive.

K

Kernel

The core of a linux system, the kernel is loaded right after your bootloader starts booting linux, and starts the system according to your configuration.

It is the "conductor" of the linux orchestra.

Versions of the Kernel:

*

First (major) number: the "Great Number", that changes once every so often.
*

Second (minor)number: the release number.It is even for stable releases and odd for development ones.
*

Third number (patch): the update number, usually bug-fixes, or small upgrades.

[ Do NOT (as I once did :-) install a kernel with an odd minor number (i.e. 2.3 and hope it will work completely as you expect. Being odd means means this is a development kernel, paving the road for the next even, stable release. (i.e. 2.4).

L

Linux

in the truest sense of the word, "Linux" refers only to the kernel.

What most people people call "Linux" is in fact usually "GNU/Linux", at least according to the Free Software Foundation.

"Linux" comes from UNIX (of course) and Linus Torvalds, who wrote one of the first free Unix-based kernel. It was used by the GNU project as a kernel for their system while the HURD kernel was|is in development.

[By the way, some people are still fighting over whether to say lie nucks , or lee nux. Make up your mind but choose swiftly , this battle is a bloody mess ;-). Linus Torvalds had to issue a recording of how HE said it!]

M

Mailing lists

There are many (hundreds at least) of user lists, but first browse the archives. Some of those gurus don't like answering the same question fifty times.

They are the closest thing you may find to a "Hot-Line".
Manpage

A specially-formatted file that offers information about a specific command or topic.

man ls

calls the manpage for the command ls, showing syntax, options,etc.

Most programs install their own manual in the same place (usually /usr/share/man, though that may vary. A variable MANPATH exists and should point to all the directories containing manpages).
Mount

A file system is organized in a tree-form, with subdirectories.In order to access another filesystem (other partitions, disks,etc) one needs to mount it. That is, specify the type of the filesystem (ext3,fat...) and the directory where to put the root of the new filesystem in the directory tree.

If you have a dos disk called C in which there are the files autoexec.bat and config.sys, then the command

mount -t msdos /dev/hda1 /mnt/dos


will link C:\ to directory /mnt/dos. So

ls /mnt/dos


will give:

autoexec.bat config.sys

Linux filesystems are usually automatically mounted during the boot phase,starting with the root filesystem, and then the others: /usr, /home, etc.

check your /etc/fstab for more info

Be careful when changing /etc/fstab, don't mount /usr/local before having mounted /usr, it does not make sense...

WARNING: The directory called the mount point MUST exist and it MUST ABSOLUTELY be EMPTY prior to the mounting operation, or else you will hide files possibly needed for the system's stability.

So do NOT mount ANYTHING over / unless you really know what you are doing.

If you think you feel the need for such a stunt, take a look at the chroot command.

O

Open Source

A general term that refers to software that has its source code included so that the consumer can modify the software if required. It is usually used as a synonym for Free Software.

P

/proc/*

Pseudo-directory structure acting as gateway to communicate with processes and other 'behind-the-scenes' bowels such as networking, memory, etc.

Those files don't really exist; when read, the system reports info, and some items, when written to, change system behavior. Pretty cool!

*

/proc/$$ = info about current shell (aka $$) including commandline, present directory, environment vars, etc
*

/proc/self/ = symlink to current process info
*

/proc/sys/net/* = ...
*

/proc/pci: info about PCI devices
*

/proc/interrupts: for IRQ monitoring
*

...

Packages

Linux software typically come either in tarballs or in packages.

Most distributions prefer the package form for two reasons:

*

It is easier to track what is installed, if it only means checking which packages (and versions).

(This is very important because, in the Linux world, software changes often)
*

It is a very convenient way to check that dependencies are met.

Package management

On Ubuntu systems, use synaptic, aptitude, apt-get or dpkg.

Ubuntu and Debian packages have the extension .deb , and RedHat 's have .rpm.
Partition

A partition is a chunk of hard disk on which a filesystem can be built.

A hard disk can have many partitions , each with its own filesystem. This makes it possible to have two or more operating systems coexist on the same hard disk drive, each one living in its own partition(s).

"Partitioning a hard drive" means separating it into partitions. There are a number of tools to do this, among them the native Linux tools"fdisk" and "cfdisk", as well as the controversial "Partition Magic" for Windows.

Linux requires at least two partitions: one is the linux swap partition, (usually twice the size of the RAM) and the other is the ext3 root filesystem. However it is sometimes recommended to mount /usr, /home, and other directories on other partitions than the one containing the root FS.
path

The list of directories from the root directory (absolute path) or from any directory (relative path) to a given file: /usr/bin/vi is the absolute path of vi. When the current directory is /usr the relative path of vi is ./bin/vi.

People also refer to the PATH, which is a list of directories in which commands will run without needing to use the full, absolute path above. For example, if /usr/bin wasn't listed in your PATH, you would need to use the command /usr/bin/vi instead of simply vi. Your PATH is an environment variable for your shell, and changing it depends on the shell you are using.

See Also Shell.
PERL

Practical Extraction and Report Language, or Pathological Eclectic Rubbish Lister ; both names are endorsed by its author, Larry Wall.

Sometimes referred to as "The administrator's swiss army chainsaw"

Perl is a popular interpreted language, that is used very often to build system administration tools, such as debconf, or parts of some servers.
Processes

A process is the way the linux kernel represents programs that are running or are in temporary standby.

Processes are identified by a unique number called PID.They are also characterized by their owner, and their priority.

Check the current processes with ps or ps aux for all of them.
Proprietary

The approximate opposite of Open Source and Free Software. A data format is proprietary when its specifications are not made public.

Software is said to be proprietary when access to the source is not granted, or only to a selected panel of reviewers. Proprietary software is usually very expensive, compared to Open Source, and is often less tested.

R

Recursive

An acronym in which the first word is the acronym itself. For example:

GNU: Gnu is Not Unix

JOE: Joe's Own Editor

Wine: Wine Is Not an Emulator

and my favorite:

HURD: Hird of Unix-Replacing Daemons

HIRD: Hurd of Interfaces Representing Depth

["We have here, to my knowledge, the first software to be named by a pair of mutually recursive acronyms."], see here
Regular expressions

One of the most powerful features of any Unix system is the "regular expression" (also called "regexp" ). It is a series of special characters that are used to design patterns, that can be used to build lists of strings (usually but not always filenames). Those lists can then be used by most command line tools. Also see wildcard...
Root

1) Administrator aka "superuser"

The root account is the all-powerful maintenance account. It can read/modify/delete any and all files on the system. It is used when installing soft/hardware, for maintenance tasks, and some processes are run under root UID.

One runs a command as "root" by typing

sudo
COMMAND

at a normal user's shell prompt and then typing their own password.
Warning

DO NOT use the root account when you can use a normal user's. Even if you are the only user, if you don't need to do specifically administration tasks, then do your work as a normal user. Otherwise, you run the risk of deleting everything on your computer. The root account is very powerful.

2) filesystem aka "/"

The root file system is the first to be mounted. It is the root of the file system tree (ergo , the name). Other filesystems are mounted on sub-directories of / (eg /usr, /home and of course /mnt ). The kernel needs to be able to mount a root file system (NEEDS ?? CHECK), so its location is specified in lilo.
RTFM

Read The Fine Manual

also sometimes RFD: Read the Fine Doc.

See Also Manpage.

S

SGML

See Standard Generalized Markup Language.
Standard Generalized Markup Language

A powerful markup language for writing documents. HTML is a compact, more specific form of SGML. For information, see Docbook.org

See Also Extensible Markup Language.
Shell

The shell is an interpreter. It can either be used as a command line interpreter for a terminal, or as a shellscript interpreter. A command-line shell is started each time a [pseudo-]terminal is created (using xterm for instance). The type of shell for a certain user can be set by editing /etc/passwd: the last field of the user's line is the shell. Change from /usr/bin/bash to /usr/bin/zsh, if you like but make sure the file can be found at that place, since there is no fall-back.

There are many different kinds of shells and choosing one is a matter of taste. Most Linux distributions offer the bash (Bourne Again SHell) as default but you can see also the csh (C-SHell), tcsh (exTended C-SHell), the ksh (Korn SHell), etc.

Shell programming using scripts is a very powerful tool for an administrator, since it was initially designed for file processing using the many command-line UNIX programs (cat, ls, ps, more, head, tail, awk, sed, etc.)
soft-link

See Symlink.
Source code

A human readable text file. It can either be compiled into an executable program , or it can be interpreted. Being able to read the source code gives de facto complete knowledge of the program, in order to understand it, de-bug it, replicate it, etc.

See Also Proprietary, Open Source.
Symlink

On Windows it's called a shortcut; on Macintosh, it's an alias. A symbolic link is a directory entry that points to some other directory entry (directory or file).

These are very handy. If you have several versions of a project or file, you can

ln -s actual-item-being-worked-on current


to be able to refer to "current" instead of the actual item. If the version changes, just update which item your link "current" should point to. Then just keep using "current" so you'll never have to change your typing habits. Very slick!

A symlink is a standalone file, removing it will NOT remove the file it points to.

See Also Hard link.

T

Tarballs

Many pieces of software for Linux don't come in precompiled form, but rather as a bundle of source code files. These files are appended one to another (with the tar utility) and zipped (compressed) with gzip. Their names are often "hop.tar.gz" or "hop.tgz"

In order to install these programs one needs to unpack them (unzipping and un-tarring) and often to compile them. GNU compliant software is usually easy to compile.

Always read the README file before doing anything other than unpacking!

U

UID, SetUID

A number representating a user. The root user's UID is 0. A program is usually run under the UID of the person who executes it (emacs, gcc, vi) except those that need to do special things (passwd, chsh) that are run as setUID root. These are the programs that are allowed to do things that only root is allowed to do, such as changing a password, or writing things to the screen of everyone on the system. These programs must be kept to a few because of the security risk that they represent.
Owner

The user with individual permissions to a file or directory. By default, the owner is the user who originally created the file, but it can be changed to someone else with the chown command.

See Also access permissions, chown.

U

Unicode

It's quite obvious that 8-bit ASCII can't be used to represent all the possible characters in the world (think of the chinese ideograms !). So a new encoding has been devised, called Unicode, with enough room for all possible characters of all existing languages (sort of).

W

Wildcard

A special regular expression, noted * , the wildcard is expanded to any and all possible values.

* means all possible values, hop* means all values that start by "hop", and so on...
Window Manager

see X

X

Extensible Markup Language

A widely-used data representation format.

See Also Standard Generalized Markup Language.
X

aka "The X Window System"

and many other (more or less correct) names (but don't just say 'Windows', argh...)

It is the system that is used to display graphical things on the screen.

An X server waits for "events" such as motion from the mouse, keypresses... It can then send this information to X clients such as Xterm, xv, that may run on different computers.

The way an X display looks like is set by a window manager whose job is to, ahem, manage your windows and their look. :-) (Borders, background image...)

Y

YMMV

Your Mileage May Vary

Z

Zip

Usually, large files (or group of files) are compressed in order to save disk space. The most widely found standard is "zip".(winzip in Windows(r), gzip in Unix), these standards are two versions of an old algorithm called Lempel-Ziv (LZ)(1977).

In Unix, zipped files usually bear the extension .gz (sometimes .tgz see Tar), use gzip file to zip (compress) and gunzip file to unzip (decompress).


_________________
当净其意如虚空,远离妄想及诸取,令心所向皆无碍


最后由 oneleaf 编辑于 2005-05-20 14:55,总共编辑了 1 次

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 文章标题 : 术语表
帖子发表于 : 2005-05-03 1:19 
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终于下决心翻这个了,太长了。。。估计不是分几步走的问题,而是几十步走的问题了!呵呵!!
This is the Ubuntu Glossary. It is based on the Debian GNU/Linux glossary written by the NewbieDoc project. It tries to sum up a few of the words that are usually common in the Ubuntu, Debian and more Linux communities, but not always explained.
本篇是Ubuntu的术语表。它由NewbieDoc项目基于Debian GNU/Linux术语表编写而成。它试图总结一些在Ubuntu、Debian和其他Linux社区中经常出现但并未总是被说明的词汇。

Thanks to Romain Lerallut who authored the original version for NewbieDoc and to all the Newbiedocwriters who've contributed.
感谢NewbieDoc的原作者Romain Lerallut和所有为NewbieDoc作出过贡献的人们。

A

access permissions

A set of permissions associated with every file or directory, (including "special files"), that determines who can Read, Write or Execute the file. Only the owner of the file or the super-user can modify those permissions.
一组与每个文件或目录相关联的权限,(包括“特殊文件”),以决定谁能读,写或执行文件。只有文件的所有者或超级用户才有修改那些权限。

The format of the access permissions, as shown with ls -l, is a list of 10 symbols:
访问权限的格式,就象用ls -l命令显示的那样,是一个十个符号的列表:

drwxr-xr-xdrwxr-xr-x

The first symbol is either - or d, designating whether or not the file in question is actually a directory. After that, there are three sets of three symbols each, telling you whether a file (or directory) is readable, writable, and executable. The three sets represent the owner, group and "everything else" permissions, respectively. For example, the above example represents a file that
第一个符号是-或d,指明当前的文件是否是目录。该符号后面有三组符号,每组由三个符号构成,分别告诉你文件(或目录)是否可读、可写和可执行。这三组符号分别对应所有者,所在组和所有用户的权限。举个例子,上面的例子表明该文件:

*
Is a directory
是一个目录

*
Gives the owner read, write and executable permissions
所有者拥有读,写和执行的权限

*
Gives the group read and execute permissions
所在组拥有读和执行的权限

*
Gives everyone else read and execute permissions
其他用户也有读和执行的权限

See Also Owner, groups.
参见Owner和groups

AFAIK

As Far As I Know
就我所知

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The standard for representing letters, numbers and control characters on 7-bits (8 bits for accentuated character sets).
美国信息交换标准码。用七位比特来描述字母、数字和控制符的标准(8位是增强字符集)。

An ascii text file is a file that can directly be read by basic text editors, such as (cat, more, joe,
ASCII文本文件是可以被基本文本编辑器(如cat,more,joe等)直接阅读的文件。

See Also Unicode.
参见Unicode

autocompletion

A feature offered by most Shells (including but not restricted to bash, tcsh, ksh and especially zsh) that allows the shell to complete a command when it can be done unambiguously. It sometimes offers a list of the possible completions. Check the Manpage for your shell for exact syntax and possible uses. With bash and tcsh, completion is achieved by pressing once on the TAB key. With ksh, it's a double strike of the ESC key...check the Manpage.
一个被大多数Shell提供的特性(包括但不仅限于bash,tcsh,ksh和especially zsh),允许Shell当一个命令被明白地写出时能补全该命令。有时它还可以提供一个可能的补全列表。查看Manpage以找出你所用Shell的准确语法和合适的用法。在bash和tcsh中,补全功能是通过按Tab键来实现的。在ksh中,它是通过双击ESC键来实现的....请查阅Manpage。

B

background

A process is said to be running "in the background" when it is not occupying a terminal. Such programs include daemons, as well as other stuff. You can put a running program into the background in bash with Ctrl+Z. Bash will list the program name and a number you can use to bring the program back to the foreground, with fg <number>.
当一个进程没有占用一个终端时被称为正在“后台”运行,如后台守护及其他程序。你可以在bash中用Ctrl+Z快捷键将正在运行的程序切换到后台,也可以用fg <数字>列出后台程序名,并将数字所对应的程序切换到前台来。

binary, binaries

Binary files are files that are not written in ASCII (human-readable) format, but in succession of bytes. Binary files include compile executable files, compressed files (including images), and some data files that don't need/allow easy review.(Or that have special requirements: ciphering, size, etc...)
二进制文件不是用ASCII(人们可以阅读)码格式编写的,而是由字节组成。二进制文件包括已编译的可执行文件,压缩文件(包括图片)和一些不需要/允许可以很方便查看的数据文件。(或是有特定需求的:保密,尺寸等)

BTW

By The Way
顺便说一句

C

C Language

One of the most powerful computer languages ever invented. Linux is written in C, as well as almost all UNIX systems: it is thus very portable among UNIX architectures. In fact, C was invented as a language which would make writing an operating system easier, and it was used to create UNIX in the first place. A programmer will type C Source code source code in a text editor and then compile it into a binary executable form.
众多被发明的功能强大的计算机语言之一。Linux就象所有UNIX系统一样也是用C语言编写的。实现上,C语言作为一个语言被发明比操作系统更早,而且它首先被用来创建UNIX系统。程序员可以在文本编辑器中编写C源代码,然后把它编译成二进制可执行格式。

See Also Interpreters.
参见Interpreters

chown

The chown command changes the owner of a file or directory to another user. Usage: chown <new owner> <file/directory>
chown命令可以将文件或目录的所有者改成另一用户。用法:
chown <新的所有者> <文件/目录>

Compiler
编译器

A compiler translates a Source code (ie human readable, ASCII) into binary (machine) code, to be executed. GCC is the GNU C Compiler, it is issued with most linux distributions.
编译器将源代码(如人们可读的,ASCII)编译成二进制(机器)代码,以便执行。GCC是GNU C的编译器,它被大多数Linux发行版使用。

D

daemon
守护程序

A program that stays in the background, and provides services for users. Daemons are usually asleep, and wake up only when a task is assigned to them.
驻留在后台并为用户提供服务的程序。守护程序通常是处于休眠状态,只有当任务被分配给它们时才会被唤醒。

A good example is the printer daemon, that spends its time waiting for documents to send to the printer.
一个很好的例子就是打印守护程序,它总是等待文档发往打印机。

See Also background.
参见background.

Debian

Debian is the distribution upon which Ubuntu is based. Like Ubuntu, Debian contains only Free software.
Debian是Linux的发行版,Ubuntu就是基于它开发的。象Ubuntu一样,Debian也只包含自由软件。

For any and all info, check out http://www.debian.org
更多信息请参见http://www.debian.org

There are simultaneously 3 releases of Debian GNU/Linux. One is the "stable", one the accordingly aptly named "unstable", the middle being held by "testing". The stable one is one in which development is stopped and packages are upgraded only for security-related bug fixing purposes. The "unstable" is the development one. In the "testing" release can be found packages that have survived 14 days of hard labor in the unstable area and that have been deemed fit for service.
Debian GNU/Linux同时存在三个版本。一个是“stable”,一个相对地被称为“unstable”,位于中间的称作“testing”。stable版本是开发已经结束,其中的包只是为于修复安全方面的Bug才被升级。unstable版本是正在开发的版本。而在testing版本中的包是在unstable中通过14天的艰苦测试被认为可以提供服务的包。

Debian was created in 1993 by Ian Murdock. It was named after him and his wife Debra: Deb-ian (pronounce it deb-ee-ann).
Debian被Ian Murdock创建于1993年。它是用他和他妻子Debra的名字命名的。Deb-ian(读作:deb-ee-ann)。

Dependencies

A dependency is a "link" between two packages, mainly when a package is required for another to work or to be installed. (debconf is used to configure a number of software. It is written in perl so it depends on package perl. Packages depending on debconf, also then depend on perl, which depends on.....).
依赖关系是两个包之间的“联系”,主要是一个包在运行和安装时要求另一个包。(debconf用于配置许多软件。它是用Perl编写的,因此它依赖于Perl包。那些依赖于debconf的包,也依赖Perl包,而它也依赖于......)。

Dependencies also refer to conflicting software or versions. You can't easily remove a package if other packages depend on it. No package management programs will allow this to happen without a command to ignore dependencies.
依赖关系也指明软件或版本冲突。你不能很轻易地删除一个包,如果其他包也依赖它的话。没有任何包管理软件会允许这样做,也没有任何命令会忽略依赖关系。

See Also Packages.
参见Packages。

/dev

/dev contains "pseudo files" that are really gateways into peripherals. Most peripherals are "talked to" by one or more /dev/* files. Among them:
/deb目录包含指向外部设备的“伪文件”。大多数外设被映射成一个或更多/dev/文件。在它们中:

*
/dev/fd0 = The first floppy disk drive (MS-DOS floppy ASmile
/dev/fd0 = 第一个软盘驱动器(MS-DOS 软盘 A盘)
/dev/fd1 = The second floppy disk drive (MS-DOS floppy BSmile
/dev/fd1 = 第二个软盘驱动器(MS-DOS 软盘 B盘)

*
/dev/hd[a-d] = IDE drives...
/dev/hd[a-d] = IDE 驱动器...

/dev/hda = controller 1 master drive
/dev/hda = 控制器1主盘
/dev/hdb = controller 1 slave drive
/dev/hdb = 控制器1从盘
/dev/hdc = controller 2 master drive
/dev/hdc = 控制器2主盘
/dev/hdd = controller 2 slave drive
/dev/hdd = 控制器2从盘

to get to the partitions, append partition number:
分区后,出现分区数:
/dev/hda1 /dev/hdb6 /dev/hdd19

*
/dev/sc[a-...] = SCSI drives
/dev/sc[a-...] = SCSI驱动器

/dev/scd = SCSI device ID 4 (<== is this right?)
/dev/scd = SCSI驱动器ID号为4(<==对吗?)

to get to the partitions, append partition number:
分区后,出现分区数:
/dev/scd7 /dev/scd13

*
depending on your sound driver,these devices are used to send/retrieve sound data:
依赖你的声音驱动器,这些设备被用于发送/取回声音数据:

/dev/audio

/dev/dsp

/dev/mixer

/dev/sequencer

/dev/tty* = remote terminal interface
/dev/tty* = 远程终端接口

/dev/tty?? shows up with the `w` command when you log in via hardwired terminal
当你用线连接终端时,/dev/tty?? 会显示“w”。

*
/dev/pts/* = pseudo-tty - ssh or (horrors!) telnet interface
/dev/pts/* = pseudo-tty -ssh或telnet接口

/dev/pts/* lets you interact with a command shell just like a real tty (above)
/dev/pts/* 让你通过命令行象真的tty一样与机器进行交互。

*
/dev/mouse = your mouse COM port
/dev/mouse = 你的鼠标COM口

Some of those files are symbolic links to others, for example:
该文件有些是软链接到其它设备接口文件的,如:

/dev/mouse -> /dev/psaux for PS/2 mice
/dev/mouse -> /dev/psaux PS/2鼠标

/dev/cdrom -> /dev/hdc if you have an IDE CD-Rom drive
/dev/cdrom -> /dev/hdc 如果你有一个IDE CD-ROM驱动器

And also many others that I don't know and that you won't have to know about unless you do wild things with your linux box Wink.
还有我不知道的许多其他方面,你也不需要知道除非你要用你的Linux做更多的事。(box Wink我不知道要怎么翻,还是老规矩,有请高手)

Distribution, distro, dists

"Linux" does not exist by itself. A distribution is
“Linux”本身并不存在。一个发行版是指

1.
a Linux Kernel, and
一个Linux内核

2.
applications (software).
应用程序(软件)。

The kind of software, the price of it (or lack thereof), details of the implementation, all depend on the distribution.
软件的种类,价格(或没有),实施细节全依赖于发行版。

Among them: Debian, Red Hat, SuSe, Slackware, Mandrake ... and lots of others.
它们包括:Debian,Red Hat, SuSe, Slackware, Mandrake ... 以及其他很多。

They mostly differ by the tools they offer to manage and or install the system.
它们提供的用于管理或安装系统的工具大部分是不同的。

E

Emacs

One of the most famous text-editors in the UNIX world. Part of the GNU project, there is a text-only version as well as a graphical one, with LOTS of "plugins" available to customize your own version. Emacs has the reputation of being able to do everything, up to but not excluding being the proverbial kitchen sink. Keep in mind that it is a fairly difficult editor to use, especially with all of the plugins installed. Many people stay away from Emacs, using the argument that an editor's job is to let you edit, and programs should do one thing well instead of everything.
UNIX世界著名的文本编辑器之一。GNU项目的一部分,它既有纯文本版本也有图形版本,并且拥有大量“插件”以便定制出你自己的版本。Emacs甚至被激进现实主义者宣称其能够做任何事而闻名天下。(这一句太不好翻了,还是有请高手)但请牢记,它是一个用起来相当困难的编辑器,尤其是当所有插件都被安装之后。很多人都不再使用Emacs。编辑器的工作是在于编辑,程序应该做好它应做的一件事,而不是每一件事。

See Also joe.
参见joe

Ext3 FS

Third-Extended Filesystem, currently the standard filesystem used in Linux.
第三扩展文件系统,当前作为Linux文件系统的标准。

See Also Filesystem.
参见文件系统

F

FAT

The standard name for the family of filesystems that use Microsoft's File Allocation Table format. For example, FAT16 is the old MS-DOS file system, VFAT is the filesystem introduced with Windows 95, allowing filenames longer than 8 characters, and FAT32 is the current filesystem for Windows systems, with some improvements on VFAT. Windows NT uses a different filesystem known as NTFS instead of a FAT system. Of course, all of these filesystems can be accessed from Linux, as long as you use the right tools (even though writing to NTFS filesystems may be risky).
文件系统中使用微软文件定位表(File Allocation Table)格式的标准名称。例如:FAT16是老的MS-DOS文件系统,VFAT是Windows 95引进的文件系统,允许文件名超过8个字符,FAT32是当前Windows操作系统使用的文件系统,在VFAT系统上做了一些扩展。Windows NT使用了不同的文件系统NTFS来代替FAT系统。当然所有的这些文件系统都能被Linux访问,只要你使用正确的工具(尽管对NTFS文件系统进行写操作也许是危险的)。

See Also Filesystem.
参见文件系统

Filesystem

a way of storing files on a medium which can be hard drives, floppies, cdroms etc,etc...
在介质(如硬盘、软盘、CD-ROM等)上保存文件的方式。

ext3 (3nd Extended) is currently the "native" FS for linux.
ext3(第三扩展)是Linux当前“自带”的文件系统。

ReiserFS is a recent filesystem, designed for both speed and survivability.
ReiserFS是最新的文件系统,主要基于速度和安全性设计的。

fat and vfat are the linux names for the standard Microsoft(r) Windows(r) filesystems: fat16 (fat) and fat32 (vfat).
fat和vfat是Linux对微软windows标准文件系统的命名方式:fat16(fat)和fat32(vfat)。

iso9660 is usually the standard for CD-ROMs.
iso9660通常是CD-ROM的标准。

smb,nfs,... are network filesystems, that allow computers to share data. 'smb' is Microsoft(r)'s well-known 'Network Neighborhood'.
smb,nfs,...是网络文件系统,允许计算机之间共享数据。'smb'就是微软的众所周知的“网上邻居”。

proc,dev,... are also [special] filesystems.
proc,dev,...也是(特殊的)文件系统。

Linux supports a great number of other file systems, at least in reading but most of them in read/write.
Linux支持大量其他文件系统,至少是可以读取其中内容,但大多数是可以对其进行读写的。

Free software

free is taken in the "freedom" sense.
free其实是“自由(freedom)”的意思。

It is a way of creating and distributing software with the source code and with the right to modify, upgrade and (re-)sell it as one sees fit to do, as long as the license (usually the GNU Public License (GPL)) comes along.
这是一种创建和发布软件的方式,软件带源代码,并且只要人们觉得必要,许可证(通常是GNU公共许可证(GPL))许可,他们就拥有修改,更新和(重新)销售的权利。

The term Open Source is also used to refer to software that is Free not because of ideological beliefs, but because it is a convenient way to develop programs. See http://www.opensource.org>.
术语开放源代码也通常指明软件是自由的,不是因为空想的理念,而是因为它对程序开发而言是一种适合的方式。参见http://www.opensource.org

Open Source software includes but is not restricted to Free Software. It is also easier to convince software companies to release their sources with the term 'Open Source' than with 'Free Software', or so is it thought.
开源软件包括但不仅是自由软件,术语“开放源代码”比“自由软件”也更容易说服软件公司开放它们的源代码或它们的编程思路。

check http://www.gnu.org
请查阅http://www.gnu.org

FWIW

For What It's Worth
不论真假;随便说说

G

GNU

Recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix"
递归定义。是“GNU's Not Unix”的首字缩写。

The GNU project was initiated in 1984 by Richard M Stallman, a software developer at MIT's AI Lab. Its goal is to provide high-quality Free Software.
GNU项目是于1984年麻省理工AI实验室里的一名软件开发者Richard M Stallman创建的。该项目的目标是提供高质量的自由软件。

groups

User groups are a feature inherited from UNIX. Groups exist mostly so that resources can be shared between users belonging to the same group. For example, while files for our project are generally owned by the authors, they are part of the newbiedoc group so that any of us can work with them.
用户组是从UNIX继承下来的特性。之所以需要组是为了让属于同一组的用户能够共享资源。举个例子,在我们项目中每个文件的所有者通常都是作者本人,它也是Newbiedoc组的成员,因此我们中的任何人都可以工作在它们上面。

See Also access permissions.
参见access permissions

H

Hard link
硬链接

To the contrary of the symlink (symbolic link), here the actual data on disk is pointed to by more than one directory entry.
它是相对于symlink(符号链接,其实也就是我们常说的软链接)而言的,表示超出一个的目录项指向磁盘上同一块真实数据。

A symbolic link is merely a file that refers to another file; a hard link is actually the same exact information, located at the same spot on the disk.
符号链接仅仅只是一个指向另一个文件的文件;而硬链接则实际上是被定位在磁盘相同点上的完全相同的信息。

With a hard link, you can pick any one of the instances of the file, and delete all the rest, and it'll still exist; with symbolic links, you can delete the target file and then all the symbolic links to it will point to a non-existent file!
使用硬链接,你可以选择文件的任何一个实例并删除所有其他的,该仍然存在;而用符号链接,当你删除了目标文件之后,那所有的软链接将指向一个并不存在的文件!

But it's much easier to distinguish between an itty-bitty symbolic link and the target file, than the original doc and any other hard link to it. In fact, it's impossible, since they are the exact same thing!
但是,它也使得区分符号链接和目标文件比起区分原始文件和其他硬链接来得容易。实际上,那是不可能的,因为它们(原始文件和其他硬链接)是完全相同的。

Hard links are becoming more and more obsolete, in favor of soft links. I strongly suggest you use symlinks, unless you know what you are doing.
相对于软链接,硬链接被用得越来越少了。我强烈建议你使用符号链接,除非你知道你正在做什么。

(the reference count , ie the number of hard links can be seen on the second column of an ls -l.
(索引计数,也就是说在使用ls -l时可以在第二列看出硬链接数

If you delete a file with a >1 reference count, it means the data is still stored somewhere, and accessible through another hard link,
如果你删除了一个索引计数a >1的文件,那就意味着数据仍然被保存在磁盘的某个地方,并可以通过另一个硬链接进行访问。

if the reference count ==1, and you delete the file, the data will be lost and the space will actually be freed.
如果索引计数等于1,而你又删除了该文件,那么数据将丢失同时数据所占空间将被释放。

Don't mention reference counts smaller than 1 they are bad news Smile
不要说你的索引计数小于1,那将是个坏消息。一笑。

HTH

Hope This Helps
希望得到帮助

I

IIRC

If I (Recall|Remember) Correctly
如果我记得没错的话

IMHO

In My (Honest|Humble) Opinion
据我看来(坦率地说|以我之愚见)

Image

Computer Graphics: an image is a bidimensional array of colored/gray/BW points. It can be stored in a large numbre of formats (gif,png,jpg,tiff,bmp...) and can be displayed with an even larger number of tools. Web browsers, image viewers or image processing tools, such as The Gimp.
计算机绘图:图像是由彩色/灰色/黑白点组成的二维数组。它可以用大量的格式来保存(如gif,png,jpg,tiff,bmp...)同时也可以用更多的工具来显示。网页浏览器,图像观看和处理工具,如Gimp。

Files: an image is an exact copy of a chunk of data. Usually, images are used when creating bootable CDs or floppies, by copying an image of a linux kernel on them. Another use is when burning CDs: you first create a hard disk image of whatever you want to copy (files or raw audio data) and then you copy this image to the CDR.
文件:映像是大块数据的精确拷贝。映像通常在创建可引导光盘或软盘时使用,为了能在它们上面拷贝一个Linux内核映像。另一个用法应试是在烧录CD时:你首先创建一个你要拷贝的(文件或未加式的音频数据)的硬盘映像,然后将该映像拷到CDR上。

Interpreters

a program that can executes commands read from a text file.
能从文本文件中读取并执行命令的程序

The shell is an interpreter, so are perl, tcl/tk, python, scheme, and to some extent, Java.
Shell就是一个解释程序,因此象perl, tcl/tk, python, scheme和java(在某些程序上)也都是。

A shell (or perl, or any other) script does not need to be compiled, so it is very portable. However interpreted languages are usually not as fast as compiled languages such as C, and they depend on the presence of the interpreter.
一个Shell(或是perl和其他)脚本不需要被编译,因此它极易移植。然而解释语言通常不如编译语言如C语言那么快,并且它们依赖解释程序的存在。

J

Java

"A highly portable object-oriented language whose syntax is based on C++'s"
“一个基于C++语法的高可移植性的面向对象语言”

Java is currently a very popular language. It is object-oriented and was originally designed by Sun Microsystems to provide developers with a very portable language for use on a multitude of devices.
Java是当前非常流行的语言。它是面向对象的,最初被Sun Microsystems设计用来为开发者提供可以在多种设备上使用的高可移植性语言。

Traditionally, a Java program is interpreted by a Java Virtual Machine: a software emulation of a standard processing environment (processor, memory, stack, etc.).
Java程序一般是被Java虚拟机解释执行的。Java虚拟机是一个提供标准处理环境的仿真软件

The JVM is different on every architecture, but the Java program doesn't need any modification or compilation when switching from one architecture to another. This makes some Java programs exceptionally slow on some occasions, compared to equivalent programs in C++. However, its very high degree of portability make it ideal to expand the client-server software concept.
JVM(Java虚拟机)在不同体系结构上都是不同的,但Java程序在一个体系结构切换到另一个时却不需要经过任何的修改或编译。这也使得某些Java程序在某些环境下相对于实现相同功能的C++程序而言显得异常缓慢。然而,它的高可移植性使之成为扩展client-server(客户端-服务器,即我们常说的CS结构)概念的规范。

The latest advances in the development of Java now include direct compilation, making the programs much faster, and expansion in the computer graphics area.
当前Java开发中的最新进展是包含了直接编译功能,以便程序运行的更快,同时扩展了在计算机图形领域方面的功能

joe

A text editor. ( Actually, it's "Joe's Own Editor" ). joe is based primarily on WordStar, a formerly very popular program for MS-DOS.
一种文本编辑器。(实际上,它是“Joe自己的编辑器”)。Joe主要基于WordStar(一个以前在MS-DOS下非常流行的程序)开发的。

See Also Emacs, Recursive.
参见Emacs, Recursive

K

Kernel

The core of a linux system, the kernel is loaded right after your bootloader starts booting linux, and starts the system according to your configuration.
Linux系统的核心部分,内核在你的引导程序开始引导Linux之后被引导,然后按照你的配置开始运行系统。

It is the "conductor" of the linux orchestra.
它是Linux系统的“指挥”

Versions of the Kernel:
内核的版本号:

* First (major) number: the "Great Number", that changes once every so often.
* 第一(主)版本号:“重要版本号”,常常会改变。

* Second (minor)number: the release number.It is even for stable releases and odd for development ones.
* 第二(次)版本号:发行版本号,偶数为稳定版本,奇数为开发版本。

* Third number (patch): the update number, usually bug-fixes, or small upgrades.
* 第三版本号(补丁):更新版本号,通常是Bug修复或小的升级。

[ Do NOT (as I once did Smile install a kernel with an odd minor number (i.e. 2.3 and hope it will work completely as you expect. Being odd means means this is a development kernel, paving the road for the next even, stable release. (i.e. 2.4).
请不要(我就曾经做过)安装次版本号为奇数的内核(如:2.3),并期望它能按你所希望的那样完美地工作。奇数版本号意味着那是正在开发的内核,是为下一个稳定版本作好铺垫(如:2.4版)。

L

Linux

in the truest sense of the word, "Linux" refers only to the kernel.
从单词确切的意义来说,“Linux”仅仅是指内核。

What most people people call "Linux" is in fact usually "GNU/Linux", at least according to the Free Software Foundation.
大多数人通常所说的“Linux”实际上是指“GNU/Linux”,起码是按照自由软件基金会的说法。

"Linux" comes from UNIX (of course) and Linus Torvalds, who wrote one of the first free Unix-based kernel. It was used by the GNU project as a kernel for their system while the HURD kernel was|is in development.
“Linux”来源于UNIX(当然)和Linus Torvalds,编写了第一个自由的类UNIX内核的人。它被GNU项目组用来当作他们系统的内核,因为那时他们的HURD内核正在开发中。

[By the way, some people are still fighting over whether to say lie nucks , or lee nux. Make up your mind but choose swiftly , this battle is a bloody mess Wink. Linus Torvalds had to issue a recording of how HE said it!]
[顺便说一句,一些人一直在争论它是读成lie nucks还是lee nux。下决心快速地选一个。这场论战导致了相当的混乱,以致于Linus Torvalds不得有发布他是如何读它的录音。

M

Mailing lists

There are many (hundreds at least) of user lists, but first browse the archives. Some of those gurus don't like answering the same question fifty times.
现在有很多(至少有几百个)用户列表,但是请首先浏览存档。这些邮件列表中的一些专家不想五十多次都回答同一个问题。

They are the closest thing you may find to a "Hot-Line".
这些都是最近出现的,你也许可以找到一条“热线”

Manpage

A specially-formatted file that offers information about a specific command or topic.
一种特定格式的文件,主要提供指定命令或主题的相关信息。

man ls

calls the manpage for the command ls, showing syntax, options,etc.
调用命令ls的在线手册,以显示语法,可选项等等。

Most programs install their own manual in the same place (usually /usr/share/man, though that may vary. A variable MANPATH exists and should point to all the directories containing manpages).
大多数程序都在同一个地方安装他们自己的手册(通常是/usr/share/man,尽管 也许有可能不同。变量MANPATH会指向所有包括在线手册的目录)

Mount

A file system is organized in a tree-form, with subdirectories.In order to access another filesystem (other partitions, disks,etc) one needs to mount it. That is, specify the type of the filesystem (ext3,fat...) and the directory where to put the root of the new filesystem in the directory tree.
文件系统是用带子目录的树形结构组织的。为了访问其他文件系统(另一个分区,磁盘等)而需要挂载它。那需要指定文件系统的类型(Ext3,Fat...)和目录树中放置新文件系统根的目录所在。

If you have a dos disk called C in which there are the files autoexec.bat and config.sys, then the command
如果你有一个被称为C的Dos磁盘,其中包括着autoexec.bat和config.sys文件,然后命令:
mount -t msdos /dev/hda1 /mnt/dos

will link C:\ to directory /mnt/dos. So
将C:\链接到/mnt/dos目录。于是
ls /mnt/dos

will give:
将得到:

autoexec.bat config.sys

Linux filesystems are usually automatically mounted during the boot phase,starting with the root filesystem, and then the others: /usr, /home, etc.
Linux的文件系统通常能在引导阶段自动被挂载,开始是根文件系统,然后是/usr,/home等等。

check your /etc/fstab for more info
查看/etc/fstab以得到更多信息。

Be careful when changing /etc/fstab, don't mount /usr/local before having mounted /usr, it does not make sense...
当改变/etc/fstab时要小心,不要在挂载/usr之前挂载/usr/local,那是不合理的。

WARNING: The directory called the mount point MUST exist and it MUST ABSOLUTELY be EMPTY prior to the mounting operation, or else you will hide files possibly needed for the system's stability.
警告:被称为挂载点的目录必须存在,并且它绝对必须在挂载操作前为空,否则为了系统的稳定你也必须将文件尽可能的隐藏起来。

So do NOT mount ANYTHING over / unless you really know what you are doing.
因此不要挂载任何东西在/目录上,除非你确实知道你在干什么。

If you think you feel the need for such a stunt, take a look at the chroot command.
如果你认为你觉得确实需要那样的话,看一看chroot命令。

O

Open Source

A general term that refers to software that has its source code included so that the consumer can modify the software if required. It is usually used as a synonym for Free Software.
一个常用名词是指软件包括其源代码,以便客户可以在需要时修改该软件。它通常是自由软件的同义词。

P

/proc/*

Pseudo-directory structure acting as gateway to communicate with processes and other 'behind-the-scenes' bowels such as networking, memory, etc.
伪目录结构作为网关与进程和其他后台内部程序如网络、内存等进行通讯。

Those files don't really exist; when read, the system reports info, and some items, when written to, change system behavior. Pretty cool!
哪些文件并不真正存在;当被读时,系统报告信息和其他项,当被写时,改变系统行为。相当的酷!

* /proc/$$ = info about current shell (aka $$) including commandline, present directory, environment vars, etc
* /proc/$$ = 当前Shell(aka $$)的相关信息,包括命令行,当前目录和环境变量等

* /proc/self/ = symlink to current process info
* /proc/self/ = 到当前进程信息的软连接

* /proc/sys/net/* = ...

* /proc/pci: info about PCI devices
* /proc/pci: PCI设备相关信息

* /proc/interrupts: for IRQ monitoring
* /proc/interrupts: 中断监视

* ...

Packages

Linux software typically come either in tarballs or in packages.
通常Linux软件是以Tarballs或包的形式出现的。

Most distributions prefer the package form for two reasons:
大多数发行版都喜欢用包,原因有两点:

* It is easier to track what is installed, if it only means checking which packages (and versions).
* 如果它只表示着哪个软件(和版本)的话,能更容易跟踪安装了什么。

(This is very important because, in the Linux world, software changes often)
(这是非常重要的,因为在Linux世界里软件经常改变。)

* It is a very convenient way to check that dependencies are met.
* 它提供了更方便检查合适依赖关系的途径。

Package management

On Ubuntu systems, use synaptic, aptitude, apt-get or dpkg.
在Ubuntu系统中,使用synaptic, aptitude, apt-get或dpkg。

Ubuntu and Debian packages have the extension .deb , and RedHat 's have .rpm.
Ubuntu和Debian包有着.deb的扩展名,而RedHat则是.rpm。

Partition

A partition is a chunk of hard disk on which a filesystem can be built.
分区是硬盘上可以创建文件系统的一块区域。

A hard disk can have many partitions , each with its own filesystem. This makes it possible to have two or more operating systems coexist on the same hard disk drive, each one living in its own partition(s).
一个硬盘可能有许多的分区,每个都可以有自己的文件系统。这使得同一个硬盘上可能拥有两个或两个以上的操作系统,且每个都在它自己的分区里。

"Partitioning a hard drive" means separating it into partitions. There are a number of tools to do this, among them the native Linux tools"fdisk" and "cfdisk", as well as the controversial "Partition Magic" for Windows.
“硬盘分区”意味着将它分成几个分区。有很多工具可以做到这一点,在它们中Linux自带的工具是"fdisk"和"cfdisk",类似于Windows环境中的"Partition Magic"。

Linux requires at least two partitions: one is the linux swap partition, (usually twice the size of the RAM) and the other is the ext3 root filesystem. However it is sometimes recommended to mount /usr, /home, and other directories on other partitions than the one containing the root FS.
Linux要求至少有两个分区:一个是Linux的交换分区(通常是RAM的两倍),另一个是Ext3格式的根文件系统。然而,相对于一个根文件系统而言,人们常常会被建议在其他分区中挂载/usr、/home和其他目录。

path

The list of directories from the root directory (absolute path) or from any directory (relative path) to a given file: /usr/bin/vi is the absolute path of vi. When the current directory is /usr the relative path of vi is ./bin/vi.
从根目录(绝对路径)或从任何目录(相对路径)到给定文件的目录列表:/usr/bin/vi就是一个到vi相对路径。如果当前目录是/usr,那么vi的相对路径就是./bin/vi了。

People also refer to the PATH, which is a list of directories in which commands will run without needing to use the full, absolute path above. For example, if /usr/bin wasn't listed in your PATH, you would need to use the command /usr/bin/vi instead of simply vi. Your PATH is an environment variable for your shell, and changing it depends on the shell you are using.
人们也指定PATH变量 ,包括着命令的目录列表,以便不必使用完全绝对路径。举个例子,如果/usr/bin目录没有列在你的PATH变量中,那么你将需要使用/usr/bin/vi来代替简单的vi命令。你的PATH变量是你SHELL中的一个环境变量,对它的改变取决于你所使用Shell。

See Also Shell.
参见Shell

PERL

Practical Extraction and Report Language, or Pathological Eclectic Rubbish Lister ; both names are endorsed by its author, Larry Wall.
“Practical Extraction and Report Language”或“Pathological Eclectic Rubbish Lister”这两个名字都被它的作者Larry Wall肯定。

Sometimes referred to as "The administrator's swiss army chainsaw"
有时被称为“管理员的瑞士军刀”

Perl is a popular interpreted language, that is used very often to build system administration tools, such as debconf, or parts of some servers.
Perl是一种流行的解释语言,它常被用于建立系统管理工具,如debconf,或某些服务的部分。

Processes

A process is the way the linux kernel represents programs that are running or are in temporary standby.
进程是Linux内核表现正在运行或暂时挂起程序的一种方式。

Processes are identified by a unique number called PID.They are also characterized by their owner, and their priority.
进程由一个唯一的被称为PID的数字来标识。他们也被他们的所有者或优先级描述。

Check the current processes with ps or ps aux for all of them.
检查当前进程可以用ps或用ps aux来检查全部进程。

Proprietary

The approximate opposite of Open Source and Free Software. A data format is proprietary when its specifications are not made public.
几乎是开源和自由软件反义词。当一个数据格式没有被公开时它就是私有的了。

Software is said to be proprietary when access to the source is not granted, or only to a selected panel of reviewers. Proprietary software is usually very expensive, compared to Open Source, and is often less tested.
当软件的源代码不允许或只允许一些被挑选的评论家查看时它就被称为是私有软件了。私有软件相对于开源软件来说通常十分贵,并且常常测试较少。

R

Recursive

An acronym in which the first word is the acronym itself. For example:
用自身单词的第一个字母来做为自己的首字母组合词。如:

GNU: Gnu is Not Unix

JOE: Joe's Own Editor

Wine: Wine Is Not an Emulator

and my favorite:
和我的极爱:

HURD: Hird of Unix-Replacing Daemons

HIRD: Hurd of Interfaces Representing Depth

["We have here, to my knowledge, the first software to be named by a pair of mutually recursive acronyms."], see here
[“这里,第一个软件用首字母组合词相互递归的一部分来命令”],参见这里

Regular expressions

One of the most powerful features of any Unix system is the "regular expression" (also called "regexp" ). It is a series of special characters that are used to design patterns, that can be used to build lists of strings (usually but not always filenames). Those lists can then be used by most command line tools. Also see wildcard...
在Unix系统中非常有特色之一就是“命名规则”(也叫“RegExp”)。它由一系列特点的字符组成的,用于创建字符串列表(通常但不仅限于文件名)的设计规范。那些列表可以被大多数命令行工具使用。参见wildcard...

Root

1) Administrator aka "superuser"
1) 管理员也称“超级用户”

The root account is the all-powerful maintenance account. It can read/modify/delete any and all files on the system. It is used when installing soft/hardware, for maintenance tasks, and some processes are run under root UID.
root帐号是拥有所有维护权限的帐号。它能读/修改/删除系统上的任意或全部文件。当安装软/硬件时使用该帐号,以便维护任务或一些在根用户UID下运行的进程。

One runs a command as "root" by typing “sudo COMMAND”at a normal user's shell prompt and then typing their own password.
作为根用户运行一个命令,在一般用户的Shell提示符中键入:“sudo COMMAND”并输入他们自己的密码。

Warning
警告

DO NOT use the root account when you can use a normal user's. Even if you are the only user, if you don't need to do specifically administration tasks, then do your work as a normal user. Otherwise, you run the risk of deleting everything on your computer. The root account is very powerful.
在你可以使用一般用户不要使用根用户,甚至你是唯一的用户,如果你不需要运行特定的管理员任务,那么作为一般用户来进行你的工作。否则你将冒着在你计算机上删除任何东西的危险。root帐号的权利是非常大的。

2) filesystem aka "/"
2) 文件系统也称为“/”

The root file system is the first to be mounted. It is the root of the file system tree (ergo , the name). Other filesystems are mounted on sub-directories of / (eg /usr, /home and of course /mnt ). The kernel needs to be able to mount a root file system (NEEDS ?? CHECK), so its location is specified in lilo.
根文件系统是第一个被挂载的。它是文件系统树的根(如其名所示)。其它文件系统作为/的目录被挂载上来(如 /usr,/home和当然的/mnt)。内核需要挂载一个根文件系统(需要?检查),因此它的位置在lilo中就被指定了。

RTFM

Read The Fine Manual
请读详细手册

also sometimes RFD: Read the Fine Doc.
有时也写作RFD:请读详细文档

See Also Manpage.
参见Manpage

S

SGML

See Standard Generalized Markup Language.
参见Standard Generalized Markup Language

Standard Generalized Markup Language

A powerful markup language for writing documents. HTML is a compact, more specific form of SGML. For information, see Docbook.org
一个用于编写文档的功能强大的标识语言。HTML是一种简单的,有着更多特定格式的SGML。更多信息参见Docbook.org

See Also Extensible Markup Language.
参见Extensible Markup Language

Shell

The shell is an interpreter. It can either be used as a command line interpreter for a terminal, or as a shellscript interpreter. A command-line shell is started each time a [pseudo-]terminal is created (using xterm for instance). The type of shell for a certain user can be set by editing /etc/passwd: the last field of the user's line is the shell. Change from /usr/bin/bash to /usr/bin/zsh, if you like but make sure the file can be found at that place, since there is no fall-back.
Shell是一个解释程序。它即能作为终端的命令行解释程序,也可作为Shell脚本解释程序。一个命令行Shell在每次打开一个[伪]终端(比如说使用xterm)时开始运行。某个特定用户所使用的Shell类型可以通过编辑/etc/passwd中用户行的最后一段来指定。如果你喜欢可以将/usr/bin/bash改成/usr/bin/zsh,不过请确定该文件能在指定位置找到,因为无法回退。

There are many different kinds of shells and choosing one is a matter of taste. Most Linux distributions offer the bash (Bourne Again SHell) as default but you can see also the csh (C-SHell), tcsh (exTended C-SHell), the ksh (Korn SHell), etc.
现在有许多不同的Shell,只需选择其中之一来体验。大多数Linux发行版提供bash(Bourne Again SHell)作为缺省Shell,不过你也可以使用 csh (C-SHell), tcsh (exTended C-SHell), the ksh (Korn SHell)等等。

Shell programming using scripts is a very powerful tool for an administrator, since it was initially designed for file processing using the many command-line UNIX programs (cat, ls, ps, more, head, tail, awk, sed, etc.)
通过使用脚本,Shell程序对管理员来说是十分强大的工具,因为它最初就是作为处理大量命令行的Unix程序文件而被设计的。

soft-link

See Symlink.
参见Symlink。

Source code

A human readable text file. It can either be compiled into an executable program , or it can be interpreted. Being able to read the source code gives de facto complete knowledge of the program, in order to understand it, de-bug it, replicate it, etc.
一种人们可读的文本文件。它要么可以编译成一个可执行文件,要么能被解释执行。可以读源代码实际上能够对程序形成完整的概念,以便理解它,调试它和重现它等等

See Also Proprietary, Open Source.
参见Proprietary, Open Source

Symlink

On Windows it's called a shortcut; on Macintosh, it's an alias. A symbolic link is a directory entry that points to some other directory entry (directory or file).
在Windows中它被称为快捷方式;在Macintosh,它是别名。一个符号链接是一个指向其他目录项(目录或文件)的目录项。

These are very handy. If you have several versions of a project or file, you can
它是非常方便的。如果你有一个项目或文件的几个不同版本,你可以

ln -s actual-item-being-worked-on current

to be able to refer to "current" instead of the actual item. If the version changes, just update which item your link "current" should point to. Then just keep using "current" so you'll never have to change your typing habits. Very slick!
用“current(当前)”来代替现在的项。如果版本改变了,只需要更新你的“current”链接的指向就行了。然后只需要保持使用“current”就可以了。因此你永远也不需要改变你的输入习惯了。非常灵活!

A symlink is a standalone file, removing it will NOT remove the file it points to.
一个symlink链接是一个独立的文件,删除它不能删除它所指向的文件

See Also Hard link.
参见硬链接。

T

Tarballs

Many pieces of software for Linux don't come in precompiled form, but rather as a bundle of source code files. These files are appended one to another (with the tar utility) and zipped (compressed) with gzip. Their names are often "hop.tar.gz" or "hop.tgz"
许多Linux软件都没有以预编译的形式出现,而是以源代码文件包的形式。这些文件打包到一个文件中(通过tar工具)并用gzip打包(压缩)。它们的名字通常是"hop.tar.gz"或"hop.tgz"。

In order to install these programs one needs to unpack them (unzipping and un-tarring) and often to compile them. GNU compliant software is usually easy to compile.
为了安装这些程序,一是需要解包(unzipping and un-tarring)同时通常还需要编译它们。GNU相关软件通常可以很容易进行编译。

Always read the README file before doing anything other than unpacking!
在解包后最好做其他任何事之前,读一下README文件。

U

UID, SetUID

A number representating a user. The root user's UID is 0. A program is usually run under the UID of the person who executes it (emacs, gcc, vi) except those that need to do special things (passwd, chsh) that are run as setUID root. These are the programs that are allowed to do things that only root is allowed to do, such as changing a password, or writing things to the screen of everyone on the system. These programs must be kept to a few because of the security risk that they represent.
代替一个用户的数字。根用户的UID是0。程序通常在执行该程序(emacs, gcc, vi)的用户UID下运行,除非该程序需要通过设置根用户UID(即SetUID)来运行一些特定的任务(passwd, chsh)。也有些程序被允许做一些只有根用户才能被允许做的事,如改变密码或将系统上每个人的屏幕上写东西。正如它所描述的那样,出于安全考虑这些程序必须只能保留少量。

Owner

The user with individual permissions to a file or directory. By default, the owner is the user who originally created the file, but it can be changed to someone else with the chown command.
对一个文件或目录拥有独立权限的用户。一般来说所有者是始建文件的用户,但它也可以通过chown命令改成其它人。

See Also access permissions, chown.
参见access permissions, chown

Unicode

It's quite obvious that 8-bit ASCII can't be used to represent all the possible characters in the world (think of the chinese ideograms !). So a new encoding has been devised, called Unicode, with enough room for all possible characters of all existing languages (sort of).
8位ASCII字符并不能表示世界上所有可能的符号(如中国的表意文字),这是十分明显的。所以一个新的编码被设计同来,叫Unicode。它有足够的位置来表示所有存在语言的全部可能的字符。

W

Wildcard

A special regular expression, noted * , the wildcard is expanded to any and all possible values.
特点的规则表达式,如著名的*,通配符可以表示任意或全部可能的值。

* means all possible values, hop* means all values that start by "hop", and so on...
* 可以表示所有可能的值,hop*表示以hop开始的所有值,诸如此类...

Window Manager

see X
参见X

X

Extensible Markup Language

A widely-used data representation format.
一种被广泛使用的数据表示形式。

See Also Standard Generalized Markup Language.
参见Standard Generalized Markup Language

X

aka "The X Window System"
也称为“X窗口系统”

and many other (more or less correct) names (but don't just say 'Windows', argh...)
还有许多其他(基本上都算正确)的叫法(但不会被叫成“Windows”,argh...)

It is the system that is used to display graphical things on the screen.
这是一种被用来在屏幕上显示图形事物的系统。

An X server waits for "events" such as motion from the mouse, keypresses... It can then send this information to X clients such as Xterm, xv, that may run on different computers.
X服务器等待“事件”的发生,如监视鼠标,击键...等。然后它将该事件的信息发送给X客户端,如Xterm,xv等,这些客户端也可以运行在其他计算机上。

The way an X display looks like is set by a window manager whose job is to, ahem, manage your windows and their look. Smile (Borders, background image...)
X显示的方式看上去象是被窗口管理器所设置,该管理器的任务就是管理你的窗口和它们的外观。Smile(边界,背景图片...)

Y

YMMV

Your Mileage May Vary
此法对你可能不灵

Z

Zip

Usually, large files (or group of files) are compressed in order to save disk space. The most widely found standard is "zip".(winzip in Windows(r), gzip in Unix), these standards are two versions of an old algorithm called Lempel-Ziv (LZ)(1977).
通常压缩大文件(或一组文件)是为了节省磁盘空间,大多数人广泛使用的创建标准是“zip”(Windows下是winzip,Unix下是gzip)。这些标准其实是一个叫Lempel-Ziv(LZ)(1997)老算法的两个版本。

In Unix, zipped files usually bear the extension .gz (sometimes .tgz see Tar), use gzip file to zip (compress) and gunzip file to unzip (decompress).
在Unix下,zipped文件通常后缀名是.gz(有时是.tgz,参见Tar),使用gzip文件去zip(压缩)并用gunzip文件去unzip(解压)。


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