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 文章标题 : 5.04 发布说明
帖子发表于 : 2005-04-18 21:58 
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Welcome to Ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog! This article explains some of the new features and improvements that this new release provides. Included are any specific notes for upgrading from the previous Ubuntu release.
Ubuntu 5.04 Release Notes by Nick Loeve, Sean Wheller & the Documentation Team
What's New

Ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog offers the following new features and improvements:

Ubuntu on the Desktop

GNOME 2.10

Ubuntu 5.04 includes the 2.10 release of the GNOME desktop. For more information see the GNOME website.
KDE 3.4

K Desktop Environment for Ubuntu (Kubuntu) is now available. The developers of kubuntu have created an extremely well integrated KDE desktop environment with the stability and reliability of the Ubuntu core. This speedy, well presented desktop, is not only easy to manage but packed full of useful applications and lots of great eye candy.
X.org

Ubuntu 5.04 includes the X server from X.org. Video cards from most major video vendors are now supported. Improved auto-detection allows for almost universal video card detection. There are also major performance enhancements for standard and proprietary ATI drivers, and proprietary NVidia drivers. For more information see the X.org website.
Package Management

Ubuntu 5.04 includes two new packages to help you keep your computer up to date: update-manager and upgrade-notifier. The Synaptic package manager also now includes support to upgrade your Ubuntu Distribution.

update-manager is a package that allows you to quickly and efficiently upgrade your software in the background. The process is simple but without the fine-grained choices offered with the Synaptic package manager. The package is good for people who like the simplicity of a one-click upgrade, similar to that available in other operating systems.
Ubuntu Update Manager Main Window

upgrade-notifier allows users to receive notifications that updates are available, and also to remind them to keep their system current.
Ubuntu Documentation

Ubuntu 5.04 saw the Ubuntu Documentation Team generate the Ubuntu FAQ Guide, Ubuntu Quick Guide, and other documentation explaining what Ubuntu is and features/functionality that are available in the current release.

The Ubuntu FAQ Guide aims to answer the most frequently asked questions by users. The Ubuntu Quick Guide is an introduction to the Ubuntu Desktop, explaining the GNOME Desktop and functions/programs available in a standard install.

System Performance

Readahead

Readahead speeds up the boot process by loading information from disk into memory before it is needed, taking advantage of the predictable nature of the boot sequence.
Faster Boot Process

Ubuntu 5.04 has a faster boot process. Improvements have been made to the startup of the X server, the GNOME Display Manager (GDM) and the CUPS printing system. The hotplug system, which allows users to "hot-swap" USB, IEEE 1394/Firewire devices, other removable devices, and non-removable devices such as PCI cards, now uses grepmap to make the boot process faster.
grepmap

grepmap has been used to improve the speed of the hotplug system, which allows you to 'hot-swap' devices such as USB devices and IEEE 1394/firewire devices.

Hardware Support

Laptop Suspend

Ubuntu 5.04 provides support for suspending laptops to RAM (standby mode) and suspending to disk (hibernate mode). This feature maybe disabled by default depending on architecture of the computer.
Suspend To Disk

Ubuntu 5.04 provides support for suspending to disk. This feature is enabled if available by the installer. If you are upgrading from Ubuntu 4.10, then please consult the Upgrade Notes for further information.
Processor Frequency Scaling

Ubuntu 5.04 supports Processor Frequency Scaling, a feature that adjusts the CPU's speed to meet current demand. The result is reduced load on the laptop battery and less heat output. Automatic driver support is now in place for a wider variety of hardware.
Hardware Database

Ubuntu 5.04 includes support for cataloging hardware information in relation to setup/install options and tracking the extent of Ubuntu support for hardware. The key feature of the hardware database is the ability for the community to contribute information which will assist the development team in improving Ubuntu's support for their hardware.

Installing Ubuntu

Kickstart Compatibility

Ubuntu 5.04 introduces Kickstart compatibility so that a system administrator can define install parameters once, and then install Ubuntu on a number of machines via CD-ROM, local hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP.
Unified Hardware Detection

Ubuntu 5.04 now has a unified hardware detection process. The Live CD, the system installer, and the installed system all use hotplug. If the Live CD correctly detects and configures hardware, then the installer will too. The Live CD can now be used for a hardware compatibility test before installing Ubuntu.
Keyboard Layout Selector

Ubuntu 5.04 has an improved keyboard layout selection process. During installation, users will not need to know anything about the keyboard layout, the correct default settings, the appropriate xkb layout, or what architecture they are using (PS/2, USB). Keyboard layout is selected when the user presses certain keys.
Interactive Keyboard Layout Installer
Installation from USB

Ubuntu 5.04 now supports installation from USB devices.
DVD Install Images

Ubuntu 5.04 now provides images for installation from DVD. The DVD install image includes all supported packages, including those Not installed by default.
All Installer Questions in First Stage

Ubuntu 5.04 now captures all user input and decisions in the first stage of the install process. Once the install medium is ejected, and the system rebooted, all subsequent stages of installation can happen unattended.
Rescue Mode

Ubuntu 5.04 now includes Rescue Mode in the install process to allow for system repairs and rebuilding.

Live CD

New Live CD Infrastructure

Ubuntu 5.04 introduces the new Live CD infrastructure that allows for a Live CD for all officially supported Ubuntu architectures, a simpler more maintainable design and build, and a unified hardware detection and configuration process.

Internationalization and Localization

Language Packs

Ubuntu 5.04 introduces language packs. They allow users to install Localization information from a centralized database as a single pack, instead of per application or package. This improves maintainability of languages/locales and saves on disk space. It also allows for translations to be directly imported from Rosetta.
Default UTF-8 Support

Ubuntu 5.04 uses UTF-8 as the default encoding and locale, and includes migration compatibilities for upgrades. UTF-8 allows support for international character sets throughout the filesystem and applications.

Ubuntu for the Developer/Administrator

Apt Authentication

Ubuntu 5.04 allows for APT to cryptographically authenticate package repositories. Authentication management is also available through Synaptic.
Synaptic Apt Authentication
Bzip2 Compression for Packages

Ubuntu 5.04 supports Bzip2 compressed Debian packages. This allows for significant space saving in text heavy packages, and smaller package indexes.
Program/Process UID

In Ubuntu 5.04 many processes that run as root (or equivalent) on other platforms/distributions run as less privileged users. Included in this list at the time of release is klogd, syslogd, cupsd, hald, ntpd, procmail, smbmount/smbumount, jackd, login, gpg/gnupg, hpoj, and at. This ensures that security vulnerabilities in these programs cannot affect the whole system any more, but are confined to the program itself.

Upgrade Notes
Pre-Upgrade

Procedure 1. Using the Synaptic Package Manager

1.

Open up Synaptic Package Manager
2.

Change your repositories to look for Hoary via the menu: Settings-> Repositories

From:

URI: http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
Distribution: warty
Sections: main restricted


To:

http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
Distribution: hoary
Sections: main restricted


3.

Reload your source listings via the Reload button.
4.

Click the Mark All Upgrades button followed by the Apply button.

Procedure 2. Using Apt

1.

Start a Shell session.
2.

Edit your sources list:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

3.

Change your repositories to Hoary.

From:

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ warty main restricted

To:

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hoary main restricted

4.

Update your sources list:

sudo apt-get update

5.

Upgrade all packages

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Post Upgrade

1.

If you are Not running NFS (Network File System) as a client or a server then remove the portmap package:

sudo apt-get --purge remove portmap

2.

It is recommended that you install the meta packages ubuntu-base and ubuntu-desktop to ensure that you have the full set of default packages installed. Not doing this could result in a broken system.

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-base ubuntu-desktop

3.

Ubuntu 5.04 will support suspend to disk, and during installation will configure your system to suspend to the swap partition. If you are upgrading, then you must manually set up the configuration for suspend to disk. To do so you must edit the file (using the sudo command) /etc/mkinitrd/mkinitrd.conf.

Replace the line #RESUME= with RESUME=/dev/SWAP where SWAP is replaced with the swap partition. To find out where the swap partition is the command sudo fdisk -l will print to the screen the partition table of your hard disk(s). Look for the device labeled as 'swap.'
4.

If you are without some localizations, you may find that it is necessary to install language-pack-xx, language-pack-xx-base and language-support-xx (where xx is your language code).
5.

Start update-notifier and save your gnome-session if you want update notification automatically.
6.

Reboot in order to effect all changes (Xserver changes, Kernel upgrades etc).

Upgrading from older releases of Debian, or other distributions, is not supported, but some users have documented their attempts in the Ubuntu Wiki.


_________________
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最后由 oneleaf 编辑于 2005-04-21 10:58,总共编辑了 1 次

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欢迎使用Ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog!这篇文章描述了这个版本的一些新特性和所提供的改进。对于前作的升级之处也作了详细的说明。

Ubuntu 5.04 版本说明 作者:Nick Loeve, Sean Wheller 以及文档小组

有什么新鲜的?(译者注:What's New,请版主自便到底要不要翻译)

Ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog提供了以下新特性和改进:

桌面应用

GNOME 2.10

Ubuntu 5.04 包括了Gnome 2.10版。请参阅GNOME官方网站获得更多信息。

KDE 3.4

Ubuntu的KDE桌面环境(即Kubuntu)已经发布。Kubuntu开发者们以已经将KDE桌面非常完美的结合到Ubuntu核心中,保证它的稳定和可靠。这

个快速、精美的桌面环境不仅仅易于管理,而且包含了很多吸引眼球的软件包。

X.org

Ubuntu 5.04 使用了X.org的X服务器。它支持大多数主流的显卡。改进过的自动侦测系统能测出大多数显卡。对于标准ATI驱动也提供了很多的

性能加强。访问X.org网站以得到更多信息。

软件包管理器

Ubuntu 5.04 包括了两个软件让您的系统始终保持最新:update-manager 和 upgrade-notifier。新利得软件包管理器也能让您升级Ubuntu系

统。

update-manager 能让您快速有效地在后台升级软件。过程简单但不如新利得软件包管理器界面友好。这是为喜欢简约的人们准备的“一键”升

级软件,这比其他操作系统都要简单得多。

Ubuntu 升级管理器主窗口

upgrade-notifier 让用户可以得到升级时的提示,也可以提醒用户最好保持现在的状况不要升级。

Ubuntu 文档

Ubuntu 5.04 已经包括了文档团队制作了Ubuntu FAQ 指南,Ubuntu 快速上手指南,以及其他一系列帮助阐述Ubuntu特点、功能的文档。

Ubuntu FAQ 指南回答了用户最常提出的问题。Ubuntu 快速上手指南是对怎样操作Ubuntu桌面——Gnome桌面的一个阐述

系统特性

预读功能

预读功能事先将所需的内容从硬盘上读到内存中,加速了启动进程,利用了进程中先后启动次序的优势。

快速启动进程

Ubuntu 5.04 拥有快速启动进程的特性。在启动X服务器、GDM和CUPS打印系统时尤为突出。热插拔系统让您可以快速使用USB、IEEE 1394/火线

以及其他移动设备,一些PCI设备运用grepmap也可以加快启动过程。

grepmap

grepmap用于改进热插拔设备的启动速度,可以用于即插即用设备,如USB和IEEE 1394总线等。

硬件支持

笔记本电脑的待机

Ubuntu 5.04 提供了笔记本电脑挂起到内存(待机模式),和挂起到硬盘(休眠模式)两种支持。这种特性可能会被默认的主机体系结构所禁

止。

挂起到硬盘

Ubuntu 5.04 支持挂起到硬盘的功能。如果安装程序开启,则能使用这种特性。如果您是从Ubuntu 4.10 升级,请参阅升级说明来获得更多信

息。

处理器频率动态调整

Ubuntu 5.04 支持处理器频率动态调整,这个功能让CPU工作在当前所需的频率上。可以有效减少笔记本电池损耗和热量输出。全自动驱动支持

现在支持很多硬件了。

硬件数据库

Ubuntu 5.04 根据安装需要,可以包括对硬件信息记录的支持。硬件数据库的主要目的是提供更多硬件信息,这可以帮助团队就此信息改进

Ubuntu对硬件的支持。

安装Ubuntu

Kickstart 兼容性[译者注:不知道怎么翻译,干脆保留。应该是类似于expert安装]

Ubuntu 5.04 引入了Kickstart 兼容性,这样系统管理员可以定制所有安装参数,也可以分别从CD-ROM、本地硬盘、NFS、FTP或HTTP 上安装。

统一硬件侦测

Ubuntu 5.04 现在使用统一硬件检测进程。Live CD、系统安装、和安装完毕的系统都支持热插拔设备。如果Live CD侦测和配置硬件无误,安

装程序也可以确保正确性。现在,安装Ubuntu之前,Live CD一般用来硬件兼容性测试。

键盘类型选择

Ubuntu 5.04 拥有一个改进过的键盘类型选择进程。安装过程中,用户不需要知道任何关于键盘类型的知识,默认的xkb类型,或哪种接口

(ps/2,USB)。当用户按下某个键时,键盘类型就被选定了。

交互的键盘类型安装

从USB安装

Ubuntu 5.04 现在支持从USB设备安装的支持
DVD 安装镜像

Ubuntu 5.04 现在提供DVD安装镜像。DVD镜像提供了所有支持的软件包,很多默认都不包括的也在内。

第一次安装安装程序所提的问题

Ubuntu 5.04 在开始安装前会捕获所有用户的输入和选择。当安装媒体被弹出后,系统重启,所有后来的安装进程会自动运行。

恢复模式

Ubuntu 5.04 安装现在提供了恢复模式,以修复或重建系统。

Live CD

新的Live CD体系

Ubuntu 5.04 引入了新的Live CD 体系以支持Ubuntu官方的Ubuntu系统体系,更易于维护的设计,有统一的硬件侦测与配置进程。

国际化和本地化

语言包

Ubuntu 5.04 引入了语言包技术。这让用户自安装过程中使用数据库中某种区域特定的信息,而不需要每个安装包都选择。这可以改善语言区

域的维护,还可以节省磁盘。更方便的是,可以让翻译包直接从Rosetta导入。

默认UTF-8 支持

Ubuntu 5.04 使用UTF-8 作为默认编码,包括升级时移植的兼容性。UTF-8 对文件系统和应用程序支持国际字符集。

开发者/管理员的Ubuntu

Apt 验证系统

Ubuntu 5.04 提供APT 加密系统对软件仓库进行验证,Synaptic也提供这种验证管理。

Synaptic Apt 验证

Bzip2 包压缩

Ubuntu 5.04 支持Bzip2 压缩的Debian包。这对文字包的效果是很明显的,同时也可以产生更小的包索引。

程序/进程的 UID

在Ubuntu 5.04 中,许多进程是以root或与其相当的身份运行的,而非没有特权的用户。进程列表中有klogd、syslogd、cupsd、hald、ntpd、

procmail、smbmount/subumount、jackd、login、gpg/gnupg、hpoj、at等。这些进程根本就不会印象整个系统运行,从而也不会导致系统不稳

定,而且他们自我锁闭,提供了进一步的安全。

升级说明
升级前

第一种方法:使用Synaptic包管理器

1.
打开Synaptic包管理器

2.
更换软件仓库位置,在Settings -> Repositories

更换:

URI: http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
Distribution: warty
Sections: main restricted

到:

URI: http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
Distribution: hoary
Sections: main restricted


3.
按Reload按钮,重读您的源设置

4.
点击标记所有升级按钮

第二种方法:使用Apt

1.
启动一个终端

2.
编辑源设置文件:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

3.
改变软件仓库位置到Hoary
从:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ warty main restricted

到:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hoary main restricted

4.
升级源数据库:
sudo apt-get update

5.
升级所有软件包
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

加速升级

1.
如果您不是一个NFS客户端或服务端,可以移除下面的软件包:

sudo apt-get --purge remove portmap

2.
推荐您安装meta 包——ubuntu-base和ubuntu-desktop,这样可以让您安装整套默认包。不这样做可能会导致系统不可用:

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-base ubuntu-desktop

3.
Ubuntu 5.04 支持挂起到硬盘,安装时会让您设置系统swap分区。如果您正在升级,那么请手动设定挂起到硬盘的相关设置。必须编

辑/etc/mkinitrd/mkinitrd.conf 文件(用sudo)。

替换 #RESUME= ,用 RESUME=/dev/SWAP ,SWAP 分区在什么地方就用其代入。为了找到swap分区所在位置,可以使用 sudo fdisk -l 命令,

它可以显示所有硬盘的信息。找到其中标记"swap"的设备

4.
如果您没有安装本地化包,您可以找诸如 language-pack-xx,language-pack-xx-base 或 language-support-xx 这样的包安装(xx就是您所

在区域的代码)

5.
启动update-notifier 保存gnome进程,如果您想开启自动升级提示。

6.
重启,以保证所有改动生效(比如Xserver 更改,内核升级等)

从其它老的Debian系统升级,不被支持,但有些用户在Ubuntu Wiki中提供了他们的尝试经验,您可以前去参阅。


_________________
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帖子发表于 : 2005-04-21 10:58 
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帖子发表于 : 2006-07-31 23:54 
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