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 文章标题 : 软件库
帖子发表于 : 2005-05-22 22:23 
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In the Free and Open Source Software world, programs are generaly available in source code tarballs. These even if very convenient to a developer who intends to study and/or improve that software program are mostly cumbersome to deal with when you want a program that Just Works.

If you have been a Windows and/or a Mac OS user to date you are probably used to search for a program on the internet (often offered in an executable installer) and having to download and install it. You should also be familiar with software distributed on CDs?, DVDs?, etc. which often have an autorun feature from where you can then install that program. For free and open systems like Ubuntu GNU/Linux there is software distributed in this fashion, but those are mostly proprietary and closed programs.

Enter the world of distributions and packages repositories!

On systems like Ubuntu, free and open source software is very much often pre-packaged in nice .deb (or .rpm like in Red Hat) files which contain the programs and libraries you need. These files can be downloaded or come in CDs? (Ubuntu's CD is full of them) and installed "by hand". But you need not do it. Repositories are servers which contain sets of packages. You generally access them with tools like Synaptic.

These tools can list all the packages you have installed (from your kernel to your favorite application with all the libraries in between) and the packages that are available in the repositories you have configured the tool to access to. They also let you search for simple things like "image editor".

Using these tools centralizes package management while simplifying it and giving the distributors (those who set up the repositories) a centralized way to send you updates(1) to your software.

In Ubuntu you generally want to have at least Ubuntu's repositories (which may include the install CD) but it is not uncommon to have other repositories (from other packagers) set up.

Now, let us just stress this simple idea: most of the tools you'll want to use in Ubuntu are already in Ubuntu's repositories, while you can go search the net looking for packages, or even source code, for some programs these are certainly more difficult to install and won't, most of the time, integrate well with your system.

So now you know: no more endless searching looking for spyware infested shareware and freeware. The vast majority of useful software available for Linux is pre-packaged for you.

(1) You can use tools like the update-notifier in Ubuntu to be notified when such updates are made available.


_________________
当净其意如虚空,远离妄想及诸取,令心所向皆无碍


最后由 oneleaf 编辑于 2005-06-01 8:57,总共编辑了 1 次

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 文章标题 : 软件库
帖子发表于 : 2005-05-30 19:53 
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地址: 温州大学
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In the Free and Open Source Software world, programs are generaly available in source code tarballs. These even if very convenient to a developer who intends to study and/or improve that software program are mostly cumbersome to deal with when you want a program that Just Works.
在自由开源的软件世界中,软件程序往往是用开源的tarball格式发布的。尽管这样做使得开发人员研究和改进程序变得十分方便,但当你只是想让程序正常工作时大多数这样的程序处理起来会显得很麻烦。

If you have been a Windows and/or a Mac OS user to date you are probably used to search for a program on the internet (often offered in an executable installer) and having to download and install it. You should also be familiar with software distributed on CDs?, DVDs?, etc. which often have an autorun feature from where you can then install that program. For free and open systems like Ubuntu GNU/Linux there is software distributed in this fashion, but those are mostly proprietary and closed programs.
如果你是一个Windows和/或Mac操作系统用户,你可能习惯于定期从网上搜索程序(通常是可执行安装程序),并下载安装该程序。你也很熟悉CD、DVD等介质上的程序常常提供自动运行功能,以便你能安装它。在自由开源系统(如Ubuntu GNU/Linux)的软件也是以这种方式发布的,除于那些大部分是私有和仅授权于少数人的程序。

Enter the world of distributions and packages repositories!
进入软件发行包库的世界吧!(实在不太好翻)

On systems like Ubuntu, free and open source software is very much often pre-packaged in nice .deb (or .rpm like in Red Hat) files which contain the programs and libraries you need. These files can be downloaded or come in CDs? (Ubuntu's CD is full of them) and installed "by hand". But you need not do it. Repositories are servers which contain sets of packages. You generally access them with tools like Synaptic.
在如Ubuntu的系统上,自由开源软件通常是用一种好的.deb文件(就象小红帽中的.rpm)预先打包的,文件包括程序和所需库文件。这样文件能够下载或从CD上得到(Ubuntu的光盘上都是)并且手动安装它们。但你不需要这么做。软件库
包括了这些包文件并提供相关服务,你只需通过工具如Synaptic访问它们就可以了。

These tools can list all the packages you have installed (from your kernel to your favorite application with all the libraries in between) and the packages that are available in the repositories you have configured the tool to access to. They also let you search for simple things like "image editor".
这些工具可以列出所能你安装过的包(从你所用的内核到你喜欢的应用程序,以及它们所需的所有库文件),并且可以找到这些在软件库中你已经配置过工具包。它们也可以让你进行一些简单的如“image editor”的搜索。

Using these tools centralizes package management while simplifying it and giving the distributors (those who set up the repositories) a centralized way to send you updates(1) to your software.
使用这些工具对包进行集中管理可以使之简单化,并给软件发布者(那些设置软件库的人)能统一给你的软件发送更新。

In Ubuntu you generally want to have at least Ubuntu's repositories (which may include the install CD) but it is not uncommon to have other repositories (from other packagers) set up.
在Ubuntu系统中,你通常想拥有至少是Ubuntu的软件库(它也许包含安装盘),但设置其它软件库(以得到其他软件)也不是什么不常见的事。

Now, let us just stress this simple idea: most of the tools you'll want to use in Ubuntu are already in Ubuntu's repositories, while you can go search the net looking for packages, or even source code, for some programs these are certainly more difficult to install and won't, most of the time, integrate well with your system.
现在,让我们牢记这样一个简单的观念:你想在Ubuntu下使用的大部分工具都已经在Ubuntu软件库中了,你可以到网上搜索那些包,或者甚至是源代码,因为它们安装起来的确更困难或更简单。大多数时候,它们都能在你的系统上运行的很好。

So now you know: no more endless searching looking for spyware infested shareware and freeware. The vast majority of useful software available for Linux is pre-packaged for you.
那么现在你知道了:不必再在共享软件和自由软件中无休止地去寻找间谍软件了。大量有用的Linux软件已经为你预先打包好了。

(1) You can use tools like the update-notifier in Ubuntu to be notified when such updates are made available.
(1) 你可以在Ubuntu中使用象update-notifier一样的工具在有更新软件时来提醒你。


_________________
我心无畏,源自于我心无知。
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帖子发表于 : 2005-05-30 19:53 
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一叶兄,怎么好象没贴完呀?


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帖子发表于 : 2005-05-30 19:59 
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http://www.ubuntulinux.org/wiki/Repositories

就这么多了。我也奇怪。


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帖子发表于 : 2005-06-01 8:57 
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http://www.ubuntu.org.cn/docs/UserDocum ... ositories/


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帖子发表于 : 2006-07-31 19:07 
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系统: Ubuntu 14.04 (Kylin)
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引用:
So now you know: no more endless searching looking for spyware infested shareware and freeware. The vast majority of useful software available for Linux is pre-packaged for you.
那么现在你知道了:不必再在共享软件和自由软件中无休止地去寻找间谍软件了。大量有用的Linux软件已经为你预先打包好了。

freeware应该翻为免费软件,自由软件的英文是free software


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帖子发表于 : 2006-07-31 19:20 
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http://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/Repositories
英文有一些变动,有兴趣的收尾


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