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 文章标题 : 桌面手册
帖子发表于 : 2005-12-02 10:39 
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http://doc.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/desktopguide/C/index.html


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帖子发表于 : 2005-12-04 3:37 

注册: 2005-11-26 19:51
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这个我来吧,看来需要点时间呢,


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帖子发表于 : 2005-12-04 18:26 

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标记一个.....10%......


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帖子发表于 : 2005-12-10 20:47 

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郁闷,临时有事出差了,真是抱歉阿,拖慢大家的进度了,如果信得过我的话,再过几天我就回来了,那时候尽快把这个翻译好,如果哪位朋友有时间说一声把它翻译了也行,真是抱歉阿。。


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帖子发表于 : 2006-01-12 0:30 

注册: 2006-01-09 22:53
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兄台,你翻译到什么地方了,我接手过来吧


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帖子发表于 : 2006-04-12 22:01 

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Ubuntu Desktop Guide
Ubuntu 桌面指南
Ubuntu Documentation Project <ubuntu-doc@lists.ubuntu.com>
Ubuntu 文档项目 联系电邮ubuntu-doc@lists.ubuntu.com
Copyright © 2004, 2005, 2006 Canonical Ltd. and members of the Ubuntu Documentation Project
版权©2004, 2005, 2006 Canonical Ltd.有限公司和Ubuntu文档项目组成员
Credits and License
著作权所有者和许可证
Disclaimer
免责声明
Abstract
摘要
Welcome to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide, a comprehensive guide to using Ubuntu in a desktop environment.
欢迎来到Ubuntu桌面指南,一份在桌面环境中使用Ubuntu的全面指南
Table of Contents
目录表
About This Guide
关于本指南
Introduction to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide
Ubuntu桌面指南简介
Conventions
约定
Contributing and Feedback
为本文档作贡献和反馈意见

1. Getting Started
1.开始
About Ubuntu
关于Ubuntu
Getting Ubuntu
得到Ubuntu
Linux Basics
Linux常识

2. Adding, Removing and Updating Applications
2.添加,删除,升级应用程序

Introduction
简介
Add/Remove Applications
添加或删除应用程序
Synaptic Package Manager
新立得软件包管理器
Command Line Package Management
命令行软件包管理
Installing a Single Package File
安装官方软件仓库之外的单个的软件包文件
Extra Repositories
官方提供的的软件仓库
Updates
升级
3. Common Tasks
3.常见任务
Music
音乐
Video
视频
Multimedia Codecs
多媒体解码器
Internet
因特网
Office
办公
Graphics & Drawing
图象与绘图
Games
游戏
Programming
编程

4. Configuring Your System
4. 配置你的系统
Desktop Tricks
桌面定制策略
Partitions and Booting
硬盘分区与系统引导
Hardware
硬件配置
Networking
网络配置

5. Getting More Help
5. 获得更多帮助
A. Creative Commons by Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0
附录A.知识共享组织署名许可证协议2.0
B. GNU Free Documentation License
附录B.GNU自由文档许可证
PREAMBLE
前文
APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
适用范围与定义
VERBATIM COPYING
全文拷贝
COPYING IN QUANTITY
大量拷贝
MODIFICATIONS
修改
COMBINING DOCUMENTS
合并文档
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
辑录文档
AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
与独立文档辑录在一起
TRANSLATION
翻译
TERMINATION
许可证作用终止
FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
将来对本许可证的修改
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
附录:如何在你的文档中使用本许可证


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 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2006-04-12 22:22 

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About This Guide
关于本指南
Table of Contents
目录表
Introduction to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide
Ubuntu桌面指南简介
Conventions
约定
Contributing and Feedback
贡献与反馈
Introduction to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide
Ubuntu桌面指南简介
Welcome to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide, a comprehensive guide to using Ubuntu in a desktop environment.
欢迎来到Ubuntu桌面指南,一份在桌面环境中使用Ubuntu的全面指南
The guide is divided into the following chapters:
本指南分为如下章节
1.

Getting Started - An introduction to the world of Ubuntu and some basic concepts which are useful when getting started.
1.开始学习──简介Ubuntu的世界和对开始学习之旅有用的一些基本概念
2.

Adding, Removing and Updating Applications - How to manage your software in Ubuntu.
2.安装,删除,升级应用程序──如何在Ubuntu中管理你的软件
3.

Common Tasks - Performing common tasks on Ubuntu, including playing music and video, using the internet, office and graphics programs and more.
3.常见任务──在Ubuntu中完成一些常见的任务,包括播放音乐和视频,使用因特网,办公软件,图形图像软件,以及更多任务。
4.

Configuring Your System - Change the settings of your Ubuntu system according to your needs.
4. 配置你的系统──根据自己的需要更改Ubuntu系统的设置。
5.

Getting More Help - Where to find help if this guide doesn't provide the answer.
5.获得更多帮助──如果本指南没有提供你所需的答案,在哪里可以找到帮助。

HTML and PDF versions of the manual are available online at the Ubuntu Documentation website.
本手册的HTML版本和PDF版本可以在Ubuntu文档网站上在线使用。


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 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2006-04-12 23:45 

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Conventions
约定
The following notes will be used throughout the book:
下列按语将在全书中使用
[Note]
A note presents interesting, sometimes technical, pieces of information related to the surrounding discussion.
代表与正在讨论相关的一条有趣信息,有时是一条技术信息。
[Tip]
A tip offers advice or an easier way of doing something.
给出建议或做事情的更简单的方法的小提示。
[Caution]
A caution alerts the reader to potential problems and helps avoid them.
提醒读者注意潜在问题并帮助读者避免这些问题的警示标志。
[Warning]
A warning advises the reader of a hazard that may arise in a given scenario.
建议读者注意在特定情况下可能出现的危险的提醒标志.
Cross-reference conventions for print will be displayed as follows:
方便打印的互相参照约定如下所示
Links to other documents or websites will look like this.
参照其他文档或网站的链接的外观是这样的this。
[Note]
PDF, HTML, and XHTML versions of this document will use hyperlinks to handle cross-referencing.
本文档的PDF, HTML, 和 XHTML版本使用超链接处理互相参照。
Type conventions will be displayed as follows:
打字约定如下所示
File names or paths to directories will be shown in monospace.
文件名或目录的路径用单间隔显示
Commands that you type at a Terminal command prompt will be shown as:
对于你在终端键入的命令,命令提示部分显示如下:
command to type
Options that you click, select, or choose in a user interface will be shown in monospace type.
用户界面中用鼠标点击,菜单选择,项目选择的选项用单间隔的打字方式显示。
Menu selections, mouse actions, and keyboard short-cuts:
菜单选择,鼠标动作,键盘快捷键
A sequence of menu selections will be displayed as follows: File -> Open
菜单选择顺序显示如下 File -> Open
Mouse actions shall assume a right-handed mouse configuration. The terms “click” and “double-click” refer to using the left mouse button. The term “right-click” refers to using the right mouse button. The term “middle-click” refers to using the middle mouse button, pressing down on the scroll wheel, or pressing both the left and right buttons simultaneously, based on the design of your mouse.
鼠标动作建立在右手鼠标配置的假定的基础上。词语“单击”“双击”指使用鼠标左键,词语“右单击”指使用鼠标右键。词语“中单击”指使用鼠标中键,或使用鼠标滑轮,或同时按下左键和右键点击,这取决于你的鼠标的类型。
Keyboard shortcut combinations will be displayed as follows: Ctrl-N .Where the conventions for “Control”, “Shift,” and “Alternate” keys will be Ctrl, Shift, and Alt, respectively, and shall mean the first key is to be held down while pressing the second key.
键盘快捷键的组合使用显示如下:Ctrl-N。在此组合键使用显示中,约定分别用Ctrl,Shift,Alt代表“Control”, “Shift,” and “Alternate”三个键;其意义为在按第二个键时已按下第一个键。


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 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2006-04-14 22:18 

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Contributing and Feedback
贡献与反馈
This book is developed by the Ubuntu Documentation Team.
本手册由Ubuntu文档组创作。
You can contribute to this document by sending ideas or comments to the Ubuntu Documentation Team mailing list.
你可以通过向Ubuntu文档组的邮件列表发送你的想法或评论的方法来为本文档作贡献。
Information about the team, its mailing lists, projects, etc. can be found on the Ubuntu Documentation Team Website.
有关本团队,本团队的邮件列表,本团队的项目的信息可以在Ubuntu文档组的网站上找到。
If you see a problem with this document, or would like to make a suggestion, you can simply file a bug report at the Ubuntu Bugtracker.
如果你发现本文档中的问题或想给本文档提出建议,可直接在Ubuntu的瑕疵追踪器上发表瑕疵报告文件。
Your help is vital to the success of our documentation!
你的帮助对本文档的完善至关重要。
Many thanks,
多谢
-Your Ubuntu Documentation Team
Ubuntu文档组。


Chapter 1. Getting Started
第一章 开始学习之旅
Table of Contents
目录表
About Ubuntu
关于Ubuntu
About the Name
关于此名
Free Software
自由软件
The Difference
与众不同之处
The Desktop
桌面
Version and Release Numbers
版本与发行号
Backing and Support
赞助与支持
What is Linux?
什么是Linux?
What is GNU?
什么是GNU?
Getting Ubuntu
获得Ubuntu
Linux Basics
Linux常识
Directories and File Systems
目录与文件系统
Permissions
使用许可
Root And Sudo
root权限与sudo权限
Terminals
终端
Text Editing
文本编辑
Users and Groups
用户和组
This chapter introduces the world of Ubuntu and some basic concepts which are useful when getting started with an Ubuntu system.
本章是对Ubuntu世界和开始使用Ubuntu系统时用的到的一些基本概念的简介。

About Ubuntu
关于Ubuntu
Thank you for your interest in Ubuntu 6.06 - the Dapper Drake release.
感谢你对Ubuntu6.06-Dapper Drake(整洁的雄鸭)发行版的兴趣。
Ubuntu is an entirely open source operating system built around the Linux kernel.
Ubuntu是一个构建在Linux内核基础上的完全开源的操作系统。
The Ubuntu community is built around the ideals enshrined in the Ubuntu Philosophy:
Ubuntu社区建立在铭刻在Ubuntu哲学观中的如下信念之上:
that software should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customize and alter their software in whatever way they see fit.
软件应免费提供,软件工具应能以人们本地语种的形式可用且不牺牲任何功能,人们应拥有定制及改变他们软件的自由,这包括以任何他们认为适宜的方式。
For those reasons:
因此:
Ubuntu will always be free of charge, and there is no extra fee for the "enterprise edition," we make our very best work available to everyone on the same Free terms.
Ubuntu 永远免费 , 即使是 "企业版本" 也不需支付任何额外的费用, 以同样的自由条件,将最好的工作成果带给每一个人。
Ubuntu includes the very best in translations and accessibility infrastructure that the free software community has to offer, to make Ubuntu usable for as many people as possible.
Ubuntu 包含了自由软件界所能提供的最好的翻译和易用构架,以便尽可能多的人可以使用Ubuntu.
Ubuntu is released regularly and predictably; a new release is made every six months. You can use the current stable release or the current development release. Each release is supported for at least 18 months.
Ubuntu 将有规律和计划的不断发布; 每 6 个月发布一个新版本。你可以使用当前稳定版本或者开发版本。每一种发行版本的可以得到支持的时间长度为至少18个月。
Ubuntu is entirely committed to the principles of open source software development; we encourage people to use open source software, improve it and pass it on.
Ubuntu 完全忠于自由开源软件开发的原则; 我们鼓励人们使用自由开源软件 ,改进它和传播它。
The Ubuntu community is comprised of developers, programmers, testers, techwriters, documentation testers, translators, and most importantly, the people who use Ubuntu every day.
Ubuntu社区由开发者,程序员,测试人员,科技文档写作人员,文档测试人员,翻译人员,
还有最重要的每天使用Ubuntu的人们组成。
We invite you to join this community and help make Ubuntu the operating system you, your family, your friends, and your colleagues will love to use.
我们邀请你加入我们的社区,并帮助我们使Ubuntu成为你,你的家人,你的朋友,你的同事喜欢使用的操作系统。
Help us translate Ubuntu into your language, try it on new and unusual hardware, improve the experience of other users with hints, tips, and FAQs, or help to shape the direction Ubuntu is headed by providing feedback about the software you love most.
你可以通过如下方式帮助我们:
把ubuntu翻译成你的语言
在新的,不常见的硬件上使用Ubuntu
通过写作建议,提示,常见问题的方式改善其他使用者的使用体验
通过提供你喜欢的软件的反馈意见帮助确定Ubuntu的发展方向。
Find out more at the Ubuntu website.
在ubuntu网站上可以找到更多信息。
About the Name
关于此名称
Ubuntu is a South African ethical ideology focusing on people's allegiances and relations with each other.
Ubuntu是南非的一种民族观念,它关注的是人们相互之间的忠诚与联系。
The word comes from the Zulu and Xhosa languages.
这个词来源于祖鲁语和廓萨语。
Ubuntu (pronounced "oo-BOON-too") is seen as a traditional African concept, is regarded as one of the founding principles of the new republic of South Africa and is connected to the idea of an African Renaissance.
Ubuntu(发音为乌不嗯图)被认为是非洲的一个传统观念,并被视为是新的南非共和国的建国原则之一,还与非洲复兴的概念有关系。
A rough translation of the principle of Ubuntu is "humanity towards others".
Ubuntu原则的大致的译文是博爱或对他人的人道。
Another translation could be: "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".
一种新的译文是对全人类基于分享和同情而联系在一起的信仰。

"A person with ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of others, does not feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished, when others are tortured or oppressed."
有ubuntu信仰的人是一个开朗,乐于助人,认同他人的人,他不会因为看到他人有才能或幸福而就感到自己受到了威胁,因为他知道并相信自己是一个更大的整体的一部分,当别人受挫或受辱时,当别人受折磨或受压迫时,他自己也会受挫。


--Archbishop Desmond Tutu
大主教 玳尔蒙德 图图
As a platform based on GNU/Linux, the Ubuntu operating system brings the spirit of ubuntu to the software world.
作为基于GNU/Linux的操作平台,Ubuntu操作系统把班图的精神带进了软件世界。
Free Software
自由软件
The Ubuntu project is entirely committed to the principles of open source software development; people are encouraged to use open source software, improve it, and pass it on.
Ubuntu 完全忠于自由开源软件开发的原则; 我们鼓励人们使用自由开源软件 ,改进它和传播它。
This means that Ubuntu is and will always be free of charge.
这就是说 Ubuntu 将是永远免费的。
However, this means more than just being available at zero cost.
然而这一点的意义并不仅是免费获得。
The philosophy of free software is that people should be free to use software in all the ways that are "socially useful".
自由软件的哲学是人们有自由以任何对社会有益的方式来使用软件。
"Free software" doesn't just mean that you shouldn't have to pay for it, it also means that you should be able to use the software in any way you wish: the code that makes up free software is available for anyone to download, change, fix, and use in any way.
所以自由软件并不仅仅意味着你不必花钱购买自由软件,它还意味着你应该可以以你希望的任何方式来使用自由软件,构成软件的代码可以供任何人以任何方式下载,更改,安装,和使用。
So apart from the fact that free software is often available without charge, this freedom also has technical advantages: when programs are developed, the hard work of others can be used and built upon.
所以自由软件除了通常可以免费得到之外,这种自由也有其在技术上的优势:程序开发出来之后,别人的辛苦努力的作品可以为人们所使用,人们还可以以这些软件作品为基础进行自己的编写。
With non-free software, this cannot happen and when programs are developed, they have to start from scratch.
对非自由软件而言,这是不可能的,当一个程序开发出来之后,其他人开发同一个程序时必须从头开始。
For this reason the development of free software is fast, efficient and exciting!
因此,自由软件的开发是迅速,高效,并激动人心的。
You can find out more about the philosophy of free software here.
你可以从这里得到更多关于自由软件哲学的信息。
The Difference
与众不同之处
There are many different operating systems based on GNU/Linux: Debian, SuSE, Gentoo, RedHat, and Mandriva are examples.
建立在GNU/Linux基础上的有很多不同的操作系统,Debian, SuSE, Gentoo, RedHat, and Mandriva 便是其例。
Ubuntu is yet another contender in what is already a highly competitive world.
而ubuntu则是在这一竞争激烈程度已经很高的世界中的又一个竞争者。
So what makes Ubuntu different?
那么Ubuntu有何与众不同之处呢?
Based on Debian, one of the most widely acclaimed, technologically advanced, and well-supported distributions, Ubuntu aims to create a distribution that provides an up-to-date and coherent Linux system for desktop and server computing.
Ubuntu基于Debian这一广受赞誉,技术领先,得到众多支持的发行版,其目标是创造一个不断更新,有连续性的Linux操作系统,供桌面计算机和服务器使用。
Ubuntu includes a number of carefully selected packages from the Debian distribution and retains its powerful package management system which allows easy installation and clean removal of programs.
Ubuntu包含了从Debian 发行版中精选处来的若干软件包,并保留了Debian的强大的软件包管理系统,使得软件的安装和卸载都很容易。
Unlike most distributions that ship with a large amount of software that may or may not be of use, Ubuntu's list of packages is reduced to a number of important applications of high quality.
和大部分装载了大量可能用的到也可能用不到的软件的发行版不同,Ubuntu中的软件包列表减少到了只包含若干高质量的重要的应用程序。
By focusing on quality, Ubuntu produces a robust and feature-rich computing environment that is suitable for use in both home and commercial environments.
通过关注质量,Ubuntu生产出一个健壮的,特色丰富的计算环境,适合在家庭和商业使用。
The project takes the time required to focus on finer details and is able to release a version featuring the latest and greatest of today's software once every 6 months.
Ubuntu项目着力改善使用的细节之处,并每六个月发布一个以包含当日最新最优秀的软件为特征的发行版。
Ubuntu is available in flavours for the i386 (386/486/Pentium(II/III/IV) and Athlon/Duron/Sempron processors), AMD64 (Athlon64, Opteron, and new 64-bit Intel processors), and PowerPC (iBook/Powerbook, G4 and G5) architectures.
Ubuntu可用于i386风格的机器(包括386/486/Pentium(II/III/IV) and Athlon/Duron/Sempron processors); AMD64 风格的机器(包括Athlon64, Opteron, and new 64-bit Intel processors); PowerPC 风格的机器(包括 iBook/Powerbook, G4 and G5 )。
The Desktop
桌面
The default desktop environment for Ubuntu is GNOME, a leading UNIX and Linux desktop suite and development platform.
Ubuntu默认的桌面环境是GNOME,一个在UNIX和Linux中主要的桌面程序套件和开发环境。
Another leading UNIX and Linux desktop is KDE.
UNIX 和 Linux中的另一个主要的桌面是KDE.
The Kubuntu project offers Ubuntu users an alternative choice to the default GNOME desktop environment.
Kubuntu项目给 Ubuntu 用户提供了一个可以代替 默认的GNOME 桌面的选择。
Thanks to the efforts of the Kubuntu team, Ubuntu users are now able to install and use the KDE desktop easily on their system.
感谢 Kubuntu 组的努力,使得 Ubuntu 用户现在可以很轻松在他们的系统上用上KDE桌面。
To get a working install of Kubuntu on an Ubuntu install, install the kubuntu-desktop package.
要在 Ubuntu 中安装KDE桌面,只需安装 kubuntu 桌面软件包。
Once kubuntu-desktop is installed, one can choose to use either a Gnome or KDE desktop environment.
kubuntu桌面软件包一旦安装,用户就可以在 Gnome 和 KDE 桌面环境之间自由选择了。
Version and Release Numbers
版本和发行号
The Ubuntu version numbering scheme is based on the date we release a version of the distribution.
Ubuntu版本号码的设计是基于发行改版本的日期的。
The version number comes from the year and month of the release rather than reflecting the actual version of the software.
版本号码来源与发行的年和月,并不反映软件的真实版本。
Our first release (Warty Warthog) was in October 2004 so its version was 4.10.
我们的第一个发行版(Warty Warthog疣猪)的发行日期是2004年10月,因此他的版本号就是4.10。
This version (Dapper Drake) was released in June 2006 so its version number is 6.06.
这个版本 (Dapper Drake整洁的公鸭)的发行日期是2006年6月,其版本号是6.06。
Backing and Support
赞助与支持
Ubuntu is maintained by a quickly growing community.
Ubuntu由一个迅速成长中的社区来维护。
The project is sponsored by Canonical Ltd., a holding company founded by Mark Shuttleworth.
该项目由Canonical Ltd.公司赞助,这是一家由 Mark Shuttleworth 创立的控股公司。
Canonical employs the core Ubuntu developers and offers support and consulting services for Ubuntu.
Canonical公司雇佣 Ubuntu 的核心开发成员,并为 Ubuntu 项目提供支持和咨询服务。

Canonical Ltd also sponsors a number of other Open Source software projects, about which more information can be found on the Canonical website.
Canonical还赞助了一些其他的开源软件项目,有关信息可到Canonical公司网站查询。
What is Linux?
Linux是什么?
The Linux kernel, pronounced 'lee-nucks' is the heart of the Ubuntu operating system.
Linux内核(kernel读作克努)是Ubuntu 操作系统的心脏。
A kernel is an important part of any operating system, providing the communication bridge between hardware and software.
内核是任何操作系统中的一个重要部分,是软件与硬件之间交流的桥梁。
Linux was brought to life in 1991 by a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds.
Linux是在1991年产生的,由芬兰的一名叫 Linus Torvalds 的学生编写的。
At the time, it would run only on i386 systems, and was essentially an independently created clone of the UNIX kernel, intended to take advantage of the then-new i386 architecture.
那时,Linux只能运行在i386系统上,在本质上是UNIX内核的独立的富有创造性的刻隆,其目的是发挥在当时是新型机器的i386构架上。
Nowadays, thanks to a substantial amount of development effort by people all around the world, Linux runs on virtually every modern architecture.
现在,得益与世界各地的人们大量的开发努力,Linux可以运行在几乎所有的计算机构架上.
The Linux kernel has gained an ideological importance as well as a technical one.
Linux内核不但具有技术上的重要性,而且具有理念上的重要性。
There is an entire community of people who believe in the ideals of free software and spend their time helping to make open source technology as good as it can be.
相信自由软件理想的人们把大量时间花在帮助开源软件技术上希望使它尽可能的完善,并因而形成了一个社区。
People in this community gave rise to initiatives such as Ubuntu, standards committees that shape the development of the Internet, organizations like the Mozilla Foundation, responsible for creating Mozilla Firefox, and countless other software projects from which you've certainly benefited in the past.
这个社区中的人们有很多创新之举,如Ubuntu项目,规范因特网发展的标准委员会,
像 Mozilla 基金会一样的组织( Mozilla 基金会负责开发 Mozilla 火狐浏览器),以及无数其他的软件项目,你以前一定从中受益过。
The spirit of open source, commonly attributed to Linux, is influencing software developers and users everywhere to drive communities with common goals.
开源的精神,通常认为由Linux而来,正影响着世界各地的软件开发者和用户,以同一个目标驱动着各个社区。
What is GNU?
什么是GNU?
The GNU Project, pronounced “guh-noo”, was launched in 1984 to develop a complete UNIX style operating system which is comprised of free software: the GNU system.
GNU(读音是古努)项目始于1984年,目标是开发出一个完整的由自由软件组成的UNIX风格的操作系统,即GNU系统。
Variants of the GNU operating system, which use the Linux kernel, are now widely used; though these systems are often referred to as “Linux,” they are more accurately called GNU/Linux systems.
使用Linux内核的GNU操作系统的变体现在在广泛使用;虽然这些系统通常被称为是Linux,但更确切的叫法是GNU/Linux。

The GNU project is closely linked to the philosophy of free software, which is central to the projects that derive from it, such as Ubuntu.
GNU项目与自由软件的哲学紧密联系在一起,并且对从GNU项目衍生而来的项目如Ubuntu来说至关重要。
The concept of free software is explained at Free Software.
自由软件的观念在自由软件(链接)上有解释


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Getting Ubuntu
获得Ubuntu
There are a number of methods you may use to obtain a copy of Ubuntu, all of which are described on the Ubuntu Web site download page.
有数种方法可以获得一份Ubuntu,所有这些方法在Ubuntu的网站上都有描述。
The first method is to download an ISO image from a mirror server near you and make an 'Install CD' from it.
第一种方法是距离你近的镜像服务器上下载一个ISO光盘镜像,然后利用此镜像制作一张安装光盘。
If you don't have a CD burner or you have limited or expensive bandwidth, we can send you pressed copies of the 'Install CD' free of charge.
如果你没有光盘刻录机或你的带宽有限或你的带宽的价格非常昂贵,我们可以免费把压缩的安装光盘寄送给你。
You may request CDs via Shipit, the Ubuntu CD Distribution System.
你可以通过网站上的Shipit(寄送光盘)——Ubuntu CD光盘的配送系统——一项服务要求我们寄送光盘给你。
Ordered CDs may take several weeks to arrive.
你要求寄送的安装光盘可能需要几个星期的时间到达你处。
You can also contact an Ubuntu Local Community Team (LoCoTeam) near you.
你也可以就近联系Ubuntu本地社区组(LoCoTeam Local Community TEAM)。
These are self-organized groups of Ubuntu enthusiasts who want to bring the Ubuntu community onto a local level.
这些由Ubuntu爱好者自己组织的小组希望把Ubuntu社区引入到他们所在的地方这一层次。
Most LoCoTeams have extra copies of Ubuntu and give them out freely.
大部分本地社区组有额外的安装光盘,会免费的分发这些光盘。
A list of existing Ubuntu LoCoTeams can be found on the Ubuntu wiki.
现有的Ubuntu本地社区组的列表可以在Ubuntu维基上查阅。
Another method of obtaining Ubuntu is to join a local Linux Users Group (LUG) and ask if somebody can make you a copy.
另一种方法是加入本地的Linux用户小组,看是不是有人愿意为你制作一张安装盘。
Normally, you will have to pay for the cost of the CD and delivery.
这种情况下,你需要支付光盘的成本费和寄送的费用。
If you do not know of an LUG near you, a list can be found at Linux Users Groups WorldWide.
如果你不知道你当地的LUG(Linux用户小组),可以在本链接上(Linux Users Groups WorldWide 世界各地的Linux用户小组)找到linux用户小组的列表。


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Linux Basics
Linux 常识
Linux is inspired by the Unix operating system which first appeared in 1969, and has been in continous use and development ever since.
Linux是受到Unix操作系统的启发而编写的.Unix操作系统最先出现于1969年,并从此一直使用和开发。
Many of the design conventions behind Unix also exist in Linux and are central to understanding the basics of the system.
Unix的很多设计惯例也存在于Linux之中,并且对于理解Linux系统的基本知识是必需的。
Unix was primarily oriented towards the command line interface, and that legacy is carried on in Linux.
Unix主要使用命令行用户界面,这一遗留延续到了Linux当中。
Thus, the graphical user interface with its windows, icons and menus are built on top of a basic command line interface.
这样Linux中带有窗口,图标,菜单的图形用户界面就建立在命令行用户界面之上。
Furthermore, this means that the Linux file system is structured to be easily manageable and accessible from the command line.
而且,这一点也意味着Linux的文件系统在结构上适合用命令行方式进入和管理。
Directories and File Systems
目录和文件系统
Linux and Unix file systems are organised in a hierarchical, tree-like structure.
Linux和Unix的文件系统是按层次组织的树形结构。
The highest level of the file system is the / or root directory.
文件系统中最高的一层是/或者说是根目录。
In the Unix and Linux design philosophy, everything is considered a file - including hard disks, partitions and removable media.
在Linux和Unix的设计理念中,一切均被视为文件,包括硬盘,硬盘分区,和可移动的媒体。
This means that all other files and directories (including other disks and partitions) exist under the root directory.
这就是说所有其他的文件和目录(包括其他的磁盘和磁盘分区)都存在于根目录下。
For example, /home/jebediah/cheeses.odt shows the correct full path to the cheeses.odt file that exists in the jebediah directory which is under the home directory, which in turn, is under the root (/) directory.
例如, /home/jebediah/cheeses.odt表明到达文件cheeeses的正确的完整的路径是根目录下的home目录下的jebediah目录。
Underneath the root (/) directory, there is a set of important system directories that are common across most Linux distributions that are used.
在根目录下,有一套重要的系统目录,这些目录在人们使用大多数Linux发行版中是共有的。
The following is a listing of common directories that are directly under the root (/) directory:
以下是直接位于根目录下的常见系统目录的列表。
• /bin - important binary applications
• /bin-重要的二进制应用程序。
• /boot - boot configuration files
• /boot – 引导配置文件。
• /dev - the device files
• /dev – 设备文件。
• /etc - configuration files, startup scripts, etc...
• /etc – 配置文件,启动脚本等。
• /home - local users' home directories
• /home – 本地用户的家目录。
• /lib - system libraries
• /lib – 系统库文件。
• /lost+found - provides a lost+found system for files that exist under the root (/) directory
• /lost+found – 提供了查找根目录下的文件和查找根目录下丢失的文件的工具。
• /media - mounted (loaded) removable media such as CDs, digital cameras, etc...
• /media – 载入的可移动媒体,如CD光盘,数码相机,等。
• /mnt - mounted filesystems
• /mnt – 挂载的文件系统。
• /opt - provides a location for optional applications to be installed
• /opt – 为可选择安装的应用程序提供安装位置。
• /proc - special dynamic directory that maintains information about the state of the system, including currently running processes
• /proc – 特殊的动态目录,此目录中保留系统状态的信息,包括当前正在运行的进程。
• /root - root user home directory, pronounced 'slash-root'
• /root – 根用户的家目录。
• /sbin - important system binaries
• /sbin – 重要的系统二进制文件。
• /sys - system files
• /sys – 系统文件。
• /tmp - temporary files
• /tmp – 临时文件。
• /usr - applications and files that are mostly available for all users to access
• /usr – 所有用户都可以使用的应用程序和文件。
• /var - variable files such as logs and databases
• /var – 可变的文件,如日志和数据库。
Permissions
授权
All of the files on a Linux system have permissions that allow or prevent others from viewing, modifying or executing.
Linux系统中的所有文件都有允许或阻止别人查看,修改,或执行的权限。
The super user "root" has the ability to access any file on the system.
超级用户root有操作管理系统中所有文件的权限。
Each file has access restrictions, user restrictions and have an owner/group association.
每一个文件都有操作限制,用户限制,并与创建他的所用者/所用者组相联系。
Every file is secured by the following three sets of permissions, in order of importance:
每一个文件都有如下的三种授权用户,以保证文件的安全。三种授权用户按其重要性由大到小排列。
• user
• 用户
applies to the user who is the owner of the file
适用于创建该文件的,是该文件所有者的用户。
• Group
• 组中的用户
applies to the group that is associated with the file
适用于与本文件有联系的组中的用户。
• other
• 其他用户
applies to all other users
Inside each of the three sets of permissions are the actual permissons.
三种授权用户中的每一种又各有其实际的操作权限。
The permissions, along with the way they apply differently to files and directories, are outlined below:
对这些实际的操作权限和这些权限对文件和目录的不同的操作方式描述如下。
• read
• read 读
files can be displayed/opened
可以打开或显示文件
directory contents can be displayed
可以显示目录的内容。
• write
• write 写
files can be edited or deleted
可以编辑和删除文件
directory contents can be modified
可以修改目录中的内容。
• execute
• execute 执行
executable files can be run as a program
可以将一个可执行文件作为程序运行。
directories can be entered
可以进入目录。
To view and edit the permissions on files and directories, open the Places->Home Folder and right-click on a file or directory.
要查看和编辑文件和目录的授权,可以打开位置-家文件夹,并右单击该文件或目录。
Then select Properties.
然后选者属性。
The permissions exist under the Permissions tab and allow for the editing of all permission levels, if you are the owner of the file.
授权显示在授权选项卡下,如果你是该文件的所有者,你有权限编辑所有的授权等级。
To learn more about file permissions in Linux, read the file permissions page in the Ubuntu Wiki.
了解更多有关Linux中文件授权方面的指示,可以阅读Ubuntu维基上的文件授权页。


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Root And Sudo
根用户和sudo超级用户应用程序
The root user in GNU/Linux is the user which has administrative access to your system.
根用户是在GNU/Linux中具有对系统的管理员权限的用户。
Normal users do not have this access for security reasons.
出于安全原因的考虑,普通用户不具有管理员的权限。
However, Ubuntu does not include the root user.
然而,在Ubuntu系统中没有根用户。
Instead, administrative access is given to individual users, who may use the "sudo" application to perform administrative tasks.
但是在Ubuntu系统中管理员的权限赋予了单个的用户,这些用户可以使用“sudo”命令来执行管理任务。
The first user account you created on your system during installation will, by default, have access to sudo.
你在安装系统时建立的第一个用户帐户系统默认具有使用sudo命令的权限。
You can restrict and enable sudo access to users with the Users and Groups application (see the section called “Users and Groups” for more information).
你可以使用“用户和组”应用程序来限制和授权用户使用sudo命令的权限。(可以“用户和组”这一部分查阅更多信息。)
When you run an application that requires root privileges, sudo will ask you to input your normal user password.
当你运行需要根权限的应用程序时,sudo应用程序会要求你输入该普通用户的密码。
This ensures that rogue applications cannot damage your system, and serves as a reminder that you are about to perform administrative actions which require you to be careful!
这样可以确保流氓程序不会损坏你的系统,并且可以用作对你将要执行管理任务需要小心的提示。
To use sudo when using the command line, simply type "sudo" before the command you wish to run. Sudo will then prompt you for your password.
在命令行中使用sudo 应用程序,只需在你要运行的命令前键入“sudo”,接着,sudo会跳出来,提示你输入你的密码。
Sudo will remember your password for a set amount of time.
Sudo 会在一定时间内记住你的密码。
This feature was designed to allow users to perform multiple administrative tasks without being asked for a password each time.
这一设计特色使你可以输入一次密码就执行多个任务,而不必每次都输入密码。
Be careful when doing administrative tasks, you might damage your system!
执行管理任务时,须小心,因为你可能会损坏你的系统。
Some other tips on using sudo:
使用sudo的其它提示:
• To use a "root" terminal, type "sudo -i" at the command line.
• 要使用具有根权限的终端,在命令行中键入 “sudo –i” .
• All of the default graphical configuration tools in Ubuntu already use sudo, so they will prompt you for your password if needed.
• 所有默认的图形配置工具都已经使用了sudo,所以这些配置工具会提示你输入密码,如果需要的话。
• For more information on the sudo program and the absence of a root user in Ubuntu, read the sudo page on the Ubuntu wiki.
• 关于Ubuntu中没有根用户和sudo程序的信息,可以阅读Ubuntu维基上的sudo页。


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Terminals
终端
Working at the command line is not as daunting a task as you would think.
在命令行中工作并不像你想象的那样困难。
There is no special knowledge needed to know how to use the command line, it is a program like everything else.
学会使用命令行并不需要特殊的知识,它只不过是一个程序,如同任何其他程序一样。
Most things in Linux can be done using the command line, although there are graphical tools for most programs, sometimes they are just not enough. This is where the command line comes in handy.
Linux中的大部分工作都可以使用命令行完成。尽管大部分程序都有图形界面的工具,但是有时候图形界面不足以完成任务。这就是命令行用起来方便的地方。
The terminal is often called the command prompt or the shell.
终端又常称为命令提示符或shell(壳)。
In days gone by, this was the way the user interacted with the computer, however Linux users have found that the use of the shell can be quicker than a graphical method and still holds some merit today
在过去终端是用户与计算机交互的方式。Linux用户早已发现使用终端可以比使用图形方式更快捷,并且即便是在今天终端仍然具有其优势。
. Here you will learn how to use the terminal.
在这一部分,你将学习如何使用终端。
The original use of the terminal was a file browser and indeed it is still used as a file browser, in the event of the graphical environment failing.
一开始,人们把终端用作文件浏览器。事实上,直到现在在图形环境不可用时,终端仍被用作文件浏览器。
You can use the terminal as a file browser to navigate your files and undo the changes that have been made.
你可以使用终端用作文件浏览器来操作文件和撤销你所作出的更改。
Starting the Terminal
启动终端
To start Terminal choose Applications->Accessories->Terminal .
启动终端可以使用菜单:应用程序-附件- 终端。
Common Commands
常见命令
View Directories: - ls
察看文件:- ls
The ls (LiSt) lists files in different colors with full formatted text
Ls命令(LiSt的缩写)用富格式的文本和不同的颜色列出文件。
Create Directories: - mkdir (directory name)
创建目录:-mkdir(目录名)
The mkdir (MaKeDIRectory) command will create a directory.
Mkdir命令(MaKeDIRectory的缩写)会创建一个目录。
Change Directories: - cd (/directory/location)
更改目录:-cd( /目录/路径)
The cd (ChangeDirectory) command will change from your current directory to any directory you specify.
cd 命令(ChangeDirectory)会将当前目录更改为你指定的任何目录。
Copy Files/Directories: - cp (file or directory name) (to directory or filename)
复制文件或目录:-cp(文件或目录名)(目的位置的目录或文件名)
The cp (CoPy) command will copy any files you specify. The cp -r command will copy any directories you specify.
cp (CoPy的缩写)命令会复制你指定的任何文件。使用cp –r 命令会复制你指定的任何目录。
Remove Files/Directories: - rm (file or directory name)
删除文件或目录:-rm(文件或目录名)
The rm (ReMove) command will delete any filename you specify. The rm -rf command will remove any directory you specify.
rm (ReMove的缩写)命令会删除你指定的任何文件。使用rm –rf命令会删除你指定的任何目录。
Rename Files/Directories: - mv (file or directory name)
重命名文件或目录:-mv(文件或目录名)
The mv (MoVe) command will rename/move any file or directory you specify.
mv (MoVe的缩写)会重新命名或移动你指定的任何文件或目录。
Find Files/Directories: - locate (file or directory name)
查找文件或目录:-locate(文件或目录名)
The locate command will search your computer for any filename you specify. It uses an index of the files on your system to work quickly: to update this index run the command updatedb. This command is run automatically each day, if you leave your computer on. It needs to be run with administrative privileges (see the section called “Root And Sudo”).
Locate命令会在你的计算机上查找你指定的任何文件。这个命令利用你的系统中的文件索引来查找文件,因此可以快速找到你所要查找的文件。可以使用命令updatedb来更新此索引。 如果你的计算机开着,udatedb这个命令会每天自动运行。但是要使用updatedb 这个命令,你需要有管理员的权限。(可参阅 “ root 和sudo” 这一部分)

You can also use wildcards to match one or more files, such as "*" (for all files) or "?" (to match one character).
你可以使用通配符来匹配一个或更多文件,如使用*(代表所有文件)或?(代表匹配一个字符)。
For a more thorough introduction to the Linux command line, please read the command line introduction on the Ubuntu wiki.
如果希望得到对linux命令行的更加全面的介绍,请阅读Ubuntu维基上的命令行介绍。
Switch to Console mode
切换到控制台
The usual method of command-line access in Ubuntu is to start a terminal (see the section called “Starting the Terminal” above) , however sometimes it is useful to switch to the real console:
在Ubuntu中进入命令行的通常的方式是启动终端(参见上面的启动终端部分),然而,有时需要切换到真正的控制台:
1. Use the Ctrl-Alt-F1 shortcut keys to switch to the first console.
1. 使用Ctrl-Alt-F1 快捷键切换到第一个控制台。
2. To switch back to Desktop mode, use the Ctrl-Alt-F7 shortcut keys.
2. 使用 Ctrl-Alt-F7 快捷键切换回桌面模式。


There are six consoles available. Each one is accessible with the shortcut keys Ctrl-Alt-F1 to Ctrl-Alt-F6.
有六个控制台可供使用,进入各个控制台的方法分别是使用快捷键从 Ctrl-Alt-F1到 Ctrl-Alt-F7。
Disable the beep sound in Terminal mode
不使用终端模式中的嘟嘟声
1. Start a Terminal session, select:
1. 启动终端会话,选择:
2. Applications->Accessories->Terminal from the desktop menu system.
2. 桌面菜单中的应用程序-附件-终端
3. Edit->Current Profile... . Select the General tab. Uncheck the Terminal bell checkbox.
3. 编辑-当前参数…选择一般选项卡,不勾选终端铃声复选框。
Text Editing
文本编辑
All of the configurations and settings in Linux are saved in text files.
Linux中所有的配置都保存在文本文件中。
Even though you most often can edit configurations through the graphical interface, you may occasionally have to edit them by hand.
尽管你经常使用图形用户界面来编辑配置,但是有时候必须自己动手来编辑这些配置文件。
Gedit is the default Ubuntu text editor, which you can launch by clicking Applications->Accessories->Text Editor on the desktop menu system.
Gedit是Ubuntu中默认的文本编辑器,可以通过在桌面菜单上点击应用程序-附件-文本编辑器来启动gedit.
At times in this guide, Gedit is run from the command line using gksudo, which runs Gedit with administrative privileges, in order to modify configuration files.
在本文当中,常通过在命令行中使用gksudo命令来运行gedit,通过这种方式运行的 gedit 具有管理员的权限,可以修改配置文件。
If you need to use a text editor from the command line, you can use nano, which is a simple to use text editor.
如果你在命令行中使用一个文本编辑器,可以使用nano,它是一个容易使用的文本编辑器。
When running it from the command line, always use the following command, which ensures that the editor will not introduce line breaks:
nano -w
从命令行运行nano时,每次都应该使用下面的命令
nano –w
这个命令可以确保本编辑器不会使用换行符。
For more information about how to use nano, refer to the guide on the wiki.
有关使用nano的更多信息,可参阅维基上的指南。
There are also quite a few other terminal-based editors available in Ubuntu, popular ones include VIM and Emacs (the pros and cons of each are cause for much friendly debate within the Linux community). These are often more complex to use than nano, but are also more powerful.
Ubuntu中可用的基于终端的文本编辑器还有一些,其中包括很受欢迎的vim和emacs(关于两者的优缺在Linux社区中引发了许多友好的讨论。这些编辑器比nano在使用上要复杂得多,但是功能也更加强。
Users and Groups
用户和组
To add users or groups to your system, you can use the Users And Groups application located in System->Administration->Users and Groups .
要在系统中增加用户或组,可以使用菜单中的用户和组应用程序,这个程序位于系统-管理-用户和组。
To add a new user, click on Add user, fill-in the data fields then click OK.
要增加一个新用户,点击添加用户,在需要填写数据的地方填上适当信息,然后点击OK.
To edit the properties of each user, click the Properties button located in the main Users window.
要编辑每个用户的属性,点击用户主窗口的属性按钮。
To add a new group, select the Groups tab and click Add group.
要添加一个新的组,选择组选项卡,点击添加组。
Choose a name for the new group and, if you want, change the default value for the Group ID.
为新建的组选择一个名字,如果你想这样做的话。然后更改组的ID的默认值。
If you try to allocate a Group ID that is in use, the system will warn you.
如果你分配给新建组的ID 时正在使用的组ID,系统会警告你。
You can add users to the newly created group by selecting a user from the left menu and clicking on the Add button.
你可以为新建的组添加用户,方法是在左边的菜单上选中一个用户,然后点击添加按钮。
Removing a user is as simple as adding one: select a user from the right menu then click Remove.
删除组中的一个用户与添加一个用户一样简单,在右边菜单中选中一个用户,然后点击删除按钮。
When you are ready, click OK and the new group with its users, if inserted, will be created.
一切就绪时,点击OK即创建一个包含用户(如果已经在组中添加了用户的话)组。
To edit the properties of a group, from within the Groups main window, choose a group name and click on the Properties button.
要编辑一个组的属性,在组主窗口中选择该组的名称,然后点击属性按钮。
To remove a user or a group from the system, select the user or group you want to delete and click Delete.
要将一个用户或组从系统中删除,方法是选中你想删除的用户或组,然后按删除按钮。


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 文章标题 : Re: 桌面手册
帖子发表于 : 2013-08-07 16:59 

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学习了。多谢


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