1 The Basesystem
Get Ubuntu CD-ROM see http://www.ubuntulinux.org/
After inserting the CD-ROM into the drive, boot and when asked to press Enter, type custom before. (Not linux custom!)
The result will be a minimal-system with less than 300 MB on the HD and only a textprompt (no GUI).
2 Postinstall the GUI
I did it in the following order, but probably the order is not important:
$ sudo su - This puts you into a root-shell (#), so no more sudo is necesary.
# vi /etc/apt/sources.list
(If you are not familiar with vi you can use nano or any other texteditor instead.)
Enable the universe-repository by removing the Hashmarks (=# (2 times))
# apt-get update
# apt-get install icewm
# apt-get install xserver-xfree86
# apt-get install x-window-system-core
# apt-get install xdm
# apt-get install numlockx
# apt-get install xterm
The result is a system with X and iceWM as windowmanager. You log in as user and on the prompt:
starts the GUI. (After the first reboot, xdm autostarts and puts you directly into the GUI-mode)
So far this system needs 468 MB on your harddrive.
3 Basic Applications
We consider a Mailreader, Webbrowser, PDF-Reader and Officesuite as basic:
# apt-get install acroread
This adds 26 MB to the harddrive (compared to 3,2 MB of gPDF, but gPDF laks crucial features like search and copy of text.)
We include Flashplayer and Acrobat-Plugin for optimal compatibility with todays WWW. (The plugins only need 2,5 MB)
# apt-get install mozilla flashplayer-mozilla acroread-plugin
Fills up the harddrive to 555MB
At the date of writing this Howto you have two options. Choose one of them (either-or, not both!). This will probably change constantly, as OpenOffice envolves - but the principle will stay the same (just the versions will change).
Either: Install OpenOffice 1.1.2 from apt-repository
# apt-get install openoffice.org
This installs Openoffice 1.1.2
Or: Install OpenOffice 1.1.3 from OpenOffice.org:
I installed OpenOffice 1.1.3 from the tar, provided by www.openoffice.org
. After untaring the tree I cd into the tree and type:
3.3 Final thoughts
Finally we have now 770 MB for the bare system on the harddrive, so if we consider to have 128 MB minimum for the swap, we need harddrives between 1 and 1,5 GB for such Ubuntu-Desktops.
4 More Applications
Size on HD
apt-get install openssh-server
apt-get install gthumb
apt-get install acroread
apt-get install gpdf
(Warning: gpdf has no search-feature and you can not copy&paste parts of text out of PDFs)
OOo, German Language Pack
apt-get install openoffice.org-l10n-de
OOo, German Help
apt-get install openoffice.org-help-de
apt-get install cupsys
apt-get install gnome-cups-manager
apt-get install cupsomatic-ppd
(This is too much - any ideas how to reduce this?!)
apt-get install gimp
apt-get install cdrecord
apt-get install mkisofs
apt-get install nedit
apt-get install alicq
apt-get install gaim
apt-get install guitar
zip und unzip
apt-get install zip
apt-get install unzip
apt-get install rdesktop
tsclient (Graphisches Frontend für rdesktop und VNC)
apt-get install tsclient
Does not work yet!
apt-get install cdrtoaster
Does not work yet !
apt-get install simplecdrx
Does not work yet!
apt-get install gtoaster
xine-ui (Multi Media Player)
apt-get install xine-ui
apt-get install w32codecs
Does not work yet!
apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
apt-get install mplayer-fonts
apt-get install gstreamer0.8-plugins
mc (Midnightcommander, Filemanager)
apt-get install mc
apt-get install emelfm
Find a working frontend for cdrecord.
Find a working Mplayer-package.
4 Future plans
If we go down to 64 or 32 MB of RAM we won't install OpenOffice. I recommend Abiword and Gnumeric instead. Also the Mozialla web broser could be a problem on such systems. Better to go with Firefox and Thunderbird/Pine.
If we compare Ubuntu's ability to adapt to low-memory-systems with Fedora we will be surprised:
Fedora Core 3 [MB]
Ubuntu 4.10 [MB]
Minimal trimmed (see http://www.simpaticus.com/linux
w/ X, iceWM
w/ OpenOffice 1.1.3
6 More help
Install and configure Ubuntu: http://ubuntuguide.org/
Installing Low-Memory-Systems: http://www.rule-project.org
Please send comments and Feedback to firstname.lastname@example.org
8 Alternative Installation with Debian Sarge
by Thomas HINTERBERGER
After installing, I had the feeling, that the Debian Icewm has some problems with the Ubuntu System (tar was not working, the same with Acroread and OpenOffice - the paths looked different). Not knowing Icewm very well, I just decided to start from a Debian Netinstall CD-Image (even floppy-disks are possible - you download it from www.debian.org
). It is very small - including X with Icewm 298 MB. I think, that Icewm works better with the original Debian - after installation all programs was working immediately (but perhaps it is just the newer Version of Icewm - 2.20 - you also get Firefox 1.0, Mozilla 1.7.5 and gimp 2.2)
you can follow the guide from Ingo - I will note only the steps you have to add.
after installation you have no "sudo su"- so just type su and the root-password to get root.
add the follwing lines to your sources.list
# netselect-apt finds the most quick of all Debian-mirrors.
after # apt-get install xterm you add
# apt-get install sudo
# apt-get install emelfm
when you are now the first time in Icewm, verify with emelfm or with the shell, that there is a file /etc/sudoers - if not, you have to reboot. - rootshell: # shutdown -r now
# echo "[username] ALL = NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/poweroff,
/sbin/halt, /sbin/reboot, /bin/cdrecord" >> /etc/sudoers
# shutdown -r now
after rebooting you should now be able to use all commands, when you press strg+alt+del. If you don't do this, you have to write all the time # shutdown -r now to a rootshell, to shut down the system proper.
instead of this, you can edit /etc/sudoers, but only with the command
!!!! don't use another editor !!!!- for visudo: strg o = saving, strg x = exit
you should have the following lines:
root ALL=(ALL) ALL
[username] ALL = NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/poweroff, /sbin/halt, /sbin/reboot, /bin/cdrecord
The rest is the same like in Ingos description - the only thing - I would use bluefish instead of nedit - it is 4 MB more, but you have a wonderful HTML - Editor.
The configuration of X is not as good and comfortable, as with Ubuntu - I did a little trick: run the Ubuntu live CD or Knoppix (if you have only 64MB, you have to do a swap partition before - I did not test it with Ubuntu, but Knoppix runs with 64MB) - make the screen and fonts well looking- copy the /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 from the live CD to a disk (or mail it), bring it to your /home directory in Icewm- save your existing /etc/X11/XF86Config-4.
# cp XF86Config-4 /etc/X11/XF86Config-4
with my system, it was working perfect (both - Knoppix-config and Ubuntu-config)
one more tip: emelfm is working as a file browser, like Nautilus or Konqueror - it is not visible from the first moment, it is hard to configure, but it does.