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 文章标题 : Ubuntu小内存系统安装指南
帖子发表于 : 2005-03-31 22:21 
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1 The Basesystem

Get Ubuntu CD-ROM see http://www.ubuntulinux.org/

After inserting the CD-ROM into the drive, boot and when asked to press Enter, type custom before. (Not linux custom!)

The result will be a minimal-system with less than 300 MB on the HD and only a textprompt (no GUI).
2 Postinstall the GUI

I did it in the following order, but probably the order is not important:

$ sudo su - This puts you into a root-shell (#), so no more sudo is necesary.

# vi /etc/apt/sources.list

(If you are not familiar with vi you can use nano or any other texteditor instead.)
Enable the universe-repository by removing the Hashmarks (=# (2 times))

# apt-get update

# apt-get install icewm

# apt-get install xserver-xfree86

# apt-get install x-window-system-core

# apt-get install xdm

# apt-get install numlockx

# apt-get install xterm

The result is a system with X and iceWM as windowmanager. You log in as user and on the prompt:

$ startx

starts the GUI. (After the first reboot, xdm autostarts and puts you directly into the GUI-mode)

So far this system needs 468 MB on your harddrive.
3 Basic Applications

We consider a Mailreader, Webbrowser, PDF-Reader and Officesuite as basic:
PDF-Reader

# apt-get install acroread

This adds 26 MB to the harddrive (compared to 3,2 MB of gPDF, but gPDF laks crucial features like search and copy of text.)
Mozilla

We include Flashplayer and Acrobat-Plugin for optimal compatibility with todays WWW. (The plugins only need 2,5 MB)

# apt-get install mozilla flashplayer-mozilla acroread-plugin

Fills up the harddrive to 555MB
Officesuite

At the date of writing this Howto you have two options. Choose one of them (either-or, not both!). This will probably change constantly, as OpenOffice envolves - but the principle will stay the same (just the versions will change).
Either: Install OpenOffice 1.1.2 from apt-repository

# apt-get install openoffice.org

This installs Openoffice 1.1.2
Or: Install OpenOffice 1.1.3 from OpenOffice.org:

I installed OpenOffice 1.1.3 from the tar, provided by www.openoffice.org. After untaring the tree I cd into the tree and type:

# ./install
3.3 Final thoughts

Finally we have now 770 MB for the bare system on the harddrive, so if we consider to have 128 MB minimum for the swap, we need harddrives between 1 and 1,5 GB for such Ubuntu-Desktops.
4 More Applications

Application


Installation


Size on HD

openssh-server (sshd)


apt-get install openssh-server


594 kB

gthumb


apt-get install gthumb


60,2 MB

Acrobat Reader


apt-get install acroread


26 MB

gpdf


apt-get install gpdf

(Warning: gpdf has no search-feature and you can not copy&paste parts of text out of PDFs)


3,2 MB

OOo, German Language Pack


apt-get install openoffice.org-l10n-de


18,6 MB

OOo, German Help


apt-get install openoffice.org-help-de


23,5 MB

CUPS Daemon


apt-get install cupsys


23,6 MB

CUPS-Manager


apt-get install gnome-cups-manager


1,6 kB

Printerdrivers


apt-get install cupsomatic-ppd


22 MB
(This is too much - any ideas how to reduce this?!)

The Gimp


apt-get install gimp


40,5 MB

cdrecord


apt-get install cdrecord


1,2 MB

mkisofs


apt-get install mkisofs


860 kB

nedit (Editor)


apt-get install nedit


3,3 MB

alicq (ICQ-Client)


apt-get install alicq


7,8 kB

gaim (ICQ-Client)


apt-get install gaim


18,4 MB

guitar (Dateikomprimierer)


apt-get install guitar


3,3 MB

zip und unzip


apt-get install zip

apt-get install unzip


550 kB

rdesktop


apt-get install rdesktop


320 kB

tsclient (Graphisches Frontend für rdesktop und VNC)


apt-get install tsclient


940 kB

cdrtoaster

Does not work yet!


apt-get install cdrtoaster


106 kB

Simple cdrx

Does not work yet !


apt-get install simplecdrx


5,1 MB

gtoaster

Does not work yet!


apt-get install gtoaster


6 MB

xine-ui (Multi Media Player)


apt-get install xine-ui


12 MB

w32codecs


apt-get install w32codecs


28,4 MB

MPlayer

Does not work yet!


apt-get install mozilla-mplayer


18,3 MB




apt-get install mplayer-fonts


7,3 MB




apt-get install gstreamer0.8-plugins


11 MB

mc (Midnightcommander, Filemanager)


apt-get install mc


5 MB

emelfm (Filemanager)


apt-get install emelfm


582 kB








Todos

Backup

Find a working frontend for cdrecord.

Find a working Mplayer-package.
4 Future plans

If we go down to 64 or 32 MB of RAM we won't install OpenOffice. I recommend Abiword and Gnumeric instead. Also the Mozialla web broser could be a problem on such systems. Better to go with Firefox and Thunderbird/Pine.
5 Comparison

If we compare Ubuntu's ability to adapt to low-memory-systems with Fedora we will be surprised:

Installation-Typ


Fedora Core 3 [MB]


Ubuntu 4.10 [MB]

Minimal standard


571


298

Minimal trimmed (see http://www.simpaticus.com/linux)


430


??

w/ X, iceWM


??


450

w/ Mozilla


??


add. 58

w/ OpenOffice 1.1.3


??


add. 184



6 More help

Install and configure Ubuntu: http://ubuntuguide.org/

Installing Low-Memory-Systems: http://www.rule-project.org
7 Feedback

Please send comments and Feedback to ingo@binonabiso.com.

8 Alternative Installation with Debian Sarge


by Thomas HINTERBERGER

After installing, I had the feeling, that the Debian Icewm has some problems with the Ubuntu System (tar was not working, the same with Acroread and OpenOffice - the paths looked different). Not knowing Icewm very well, I just decided to start from a Debian Netinstall CD-Image (even floppy-disks are possible - you download it from www.debian.org ). It is very small - including X with Icewm 298 MB. I think, that Icewm works better with the original Debian - after installation all programs was working immediately (but perhaps it is just the newer Version of Icewm - 2.20 - you also get Firefox 1.0, Mozilla 1.7.5 and gimp 2.2)

you can follow the guide from Ingo - I will note only the steps you have to add.

after installation you have no "sudo su"- so just type su and the root-password to get root.

add the follwing lines to your sources.list

deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian/ sarge main
deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian-non-US/ sarge/non-US main
deb-src ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian/ sarge main
deb-src ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian-non-US/ sarge/non-US main

# netselect-apt finds the most quick of all Debian-mirrors.

after # apt-get install xterm you add

# apt-get install sudo

# apt-get install emelfm

when you are now the first time in Icewm, verify with emelfm or with the shell, that there is a file /etc/sudoers - if not, you have to reboot. - rootshell: # shutdown -r now

# echo "[username] ALL = NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/poweroff,
/sbin/halt, /sbin/reboot, /bin/cdrecord" >> /etc/sudoers

# shutdown -r now

after rebooting you should now be able to use all commands, when you press strg+alt+del. If you don't do this, you have to write all the time # shutdown -r now to a rootshell, to shut down the system proper.

instead of this, you can edit /etc/sudoers, but only with the command

# visudo

!!!! don't use another editor !!!!- for visudo: strg o = saving, strg x = exit

you should have the following lines:

root ALL=(ALL) ALL
[username] ALL = NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/poweroff, /sbin/halt, /sbin/reboot, /bin/cdrecord
The rest is the same like in Ingos description - the only thing - I would use bluefish instead of nedit - it is 4 MB more, but you have a wonderful HTML - Editor.

The configuration of X is not as good and comfortable, as with Ubuntu - I did a little trick: run the Ubuntu live CD or Knoppix (if you have only 64MB, you have to do a swap partition before - I did not test it with Ubuntu, but Knoppix runs with 64MB) - make the screen and fonts well looking- copy the /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 from the live CD to a disk (or mail it), bring it to your /home directory in Icewm- save your existing /etc/X11/XF86Config-4.

# cp XF86Config-4 /etc/X11/XF86Config-4

with my system, it was working perfect (both - Knoppix-config and Ubuntu-config)

one more tip: emelfm is working as a file browser, like Nautilus or Konqueror - it is not visible from the first moment, it is hard to configure, but it does.

http://www.binonabiso.com/en/Ubuntu-miniRAM-HOWTO.html


最后由 oneleaf 编辑于 2005-04-15 12:07,总共编辑了 2 次

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2 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2005-04-14 10:49 

注册: 2005-04-13 21:04
帖子: 56
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应该有两张表格的,实在无法精确的排版,抱歉。
**********************************************************
1 基本系统

获得Ubuntu CD-RO,详见http://www.ubuntulinux.org/

吧CD-ROM塞到驱动器后,当被提示按Enter,键入custom(不是linux中的custom!)

微型系统会占用不到300 MB的硬盘空间,但只有文字界面(没有图形界面)。

2 后续安装流程

我是按以下步骤做的,但顺序并不重要:

$ sudo su - 这让你获得一个root的shell(#),sudo是必须要安装的

# vi /etc/apt/sources.list

(如果你不熟悉vi,你可以尝试nano或其他文本编辑器)
删除#标志,打开系统软件仓库(universe-repository)

# apt-get update

# apt-get install icewm

# apt-get install xserver-xfree86

# apt-get install x-window-system-core

# apt-get install xdm

# apt-get install numlockx

# apt-get install xterm

安装X系统和iceWM窗口管理器。然后以普通身份登录:

$ startx

启动GUI图形界面。(第一次重启以后,xdm就会自动启动,直接把你带入图形环境中)

以上配置需要468 MB的硬盘空间

3 基本应用程序

我们认为一个邮件收发器,一个网页浏览器,一个PDF阅读器和一个Office套件是最基本的了:

PDF阅读器

# apt-get install acroread

这需要额外的26 MB硬盘空间(相比之下,gPDF只需要3.2 MB空间,但它没有搜索和拷贝文本的重要特性)

Mozilla

我们把Flashplayer和Acrobat插件包括在内,这是为了能于当今的网络更好地兼容。(插件仅需要2.5 MB空间)

# apt-get install mozilla flashplayer-mozilla acroread-plugin

以上一共占用了555 MB的硬盘空间

Office套件

直到写这个Howto时,你有两个选择,可以任选其一(不能全选)。OpenOffic会经常更新,但核心是不变的(只是更换版本号而已)。
从软件仓库中获得:
# apt-get install openoffice.org

这会安装Openoffice 1.1.2
或者:通过OpenOffice.org安装OpenOffice 1.1.3:

我下载了官方网站提供的OpenOffice 1.1.3的tar包。解包以后进入tar树,然后键入:

# ./install

3.3 最后的总结

最后我们有了一个大小是770 MB的基本系统了,我们还需要一个128 MB的swap空间,这样我们运用Ubuntu桌面就只需要一个1 GB到1.5 GB大小的硬盘了。

4 额外的应用程序

程序名称 安装方式 所需空间

openssh-server (sshd) apt-get install openssh-server 594 kB

gthumb apt-get install gthumb 60,2 MB

Acrobat Reader apt-get install acroread 26 MB

gpdf(没有搜索和复制粘贴功能) apt-get install gpdf 3.2 MB

OOo, German Language Pack apt-get install openoffice.org-l10n-de 18.6 MB

OOo, German Help apt-get install openoffice.org-help-de 23.5 MB

CUPS Daemon apt-get install cupsys 23.6 MB

CUPS-Manager apt-get install gnome-cups-manager 1.6 kB

Printerdrivers(这也太大了?!) apt-get install cupsomatic-ppd 22 MB

The Gimp apt-get install gimp 40.5 MB

cdrecord apt-get install cdrecord 1.2 MB

mkisofs apt-get install mkisofs 860 kB

nedit (编辑器) apt-get install nedit 3.3 MB

alicq (ICQ客户端) apt-get install alicq 7.8 kB

gaim (ICQ客户端) apt-get install gaim 18.4 MB

guitar (Dateikomprimierer) apt-get install guitar 3.3 MB

zip und unzip apt-get install zip/apt-get install unzip 550 kB

rdesktop apt-get install rdesktop 320 kB

tsclient (VNC客户端) apt-get install tsclient 940 kB

cdrtoaster(这个暂时不能工作) apt-get install cdrtoaster 106 kB

Simple cdrx(这个暂时不能工作) apt-get install simplecdrx 5.1 MB

gtoaster(这个暂时不能工作) apt-get install gtoaster 6 MB

xine-ui (多媒体播放器) apt-get install xine-ui 12 MB

w32codecs apt-get install w32codecs 28.4 MB

MPlayer(这个暂时不能工作) apt-get install mozilla-mplayer 18.3 MB

MPlayer字体 apt-get install mplayer-fonts 7.3 MB

gstreamer插件 apt-get install gstreamer0.8-plugins 11 MB

mc (Midnightcommander, 文件管理器) apt-get install mc 5 MB

emelfm (文件管理器) apt-get install emelfm 582 kB

Todos(备份)在CD-ROM中着一个能工作的前台

找一个能工作的Mplayer包

4 将来的打算

如果你只有64 MB或32 MB内存,就不要安装OpenOffice了。我推荐Abiword或Gnumeric。Mozilla浏览器似乎也不太合适,推荐Firefox或Thunderbird/Pine.

5 比较

如果我们把Ubuntu和Fedora相对低内存的支持做个比较,会惊奇的发现:

Installation-Type Fedora Core 3 [MB] Ubuntu 4.10 [MB]
Minimal standard 571 298
(参考http://www.simpaticus.com/linux)
Minimal trimmed 430 ??

w/ X, iceWM ?? 450

w/ Mozilla ?? add. 58

w/ OpenOffice 1.1.3 ?? add. 184


6 更多帮助

安装和配置Ubuntu:http://ubuntuguide.org/

安装低内存系统:http://www.rule-project.org

7 反馈

请将评论和反馈寄到ingo@binonabiso.com

8 与Debian Sarge选择安装

作者 Thomas HINTERBERGER

安装之后,我发现Debian iceWM于Ubuntu系统有些冲突(tar包不能正常工作,Acroread和OpenOffice也是如此--路径似乎不对)。因为我不太了解iceWM,我打算用网络安装Debian(软盘安装也可以,你可以在www.debian.org下载)。这非常小,包括X和iceWM才298 MB。我想,iceWM在原始Debian中iceWM工作地很好,安装完以后所有程序都能立即工作(但可能是因为这是最新版的iceWM 2.20,当然你也应该安装Firefox 1.0, Mozilla 1.7.5和gimp 2.2)

你可以根据Ingo那样做,我只是在必要出添加注解。

安装以后不要用"sudo su",应该键入“su”来获取根用户权限

吧下列内容加到/etc/apt/sources.list中

deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian/ sarge main
deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian-non-US/ sarge/non-US main
deb-src ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian/ sarge main
deb-src ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian-non-US/ sarge/non-US main

# netselect-apt
找到最快的Debian镜像

# apt-get install xterm

# apt-get install sudo

# apt-get install emelfm

当你第一次用iceWM,应该存在/etc/sudoers文件,如果没有,请重启后再进行下一步:# shutdown -r now

# echo "[username] ALL = NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/poweroff,
/sbin/halt, /sbin/reboot, /bin/cdrecord" >> /etc/sudoers

# shutdown -r now

重启之后,当你按下strg+alt+del,你就可以使用所有命令了。如果不起作用,你必须以root身份正确重启机器。

除此以外,你可以编辑/etc/sudoers文件,但只能用命令

# visudo

!!!!不要用其他编辑器!!!!,visudo命令:o = 保存, x = 退出

输入以下内容:

root ALL=(ALL) ALL
[username] ALL = NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/poweroff, /sbin/halt, /sbin/reboot, /bin/cdrecord

剩下的纠合Ingo描述的一样了,只有一件事:我没有用nedit,而是bluefish,它有4 MB多,但你能获得一个漂亮HTML编辑环境。

Ubuntu中,X的配置不那么容易。我又一个小技巧:使用Ubuntu live CD或Knoppix (如果你只有64 MB,你必须先做一个swap分区。我没有在Ubuntu中做测试,但Knoppix是能在64 MB下启动的),设置让屏幕和字体看起来漂亮一些,拷贝live CD或磁盘上的/etc/X11/XF86Config-4(发邮件也可以)到/home目录中保存,然后复制到/etc/X11/XF86Config-4覆盖它。

# cp XF86Config-4 /etc/X11/XF86Config-4

在我的系统中,它能完全正常的工作(无论使用Knoppix配置还是Ubuntu配置)

另外一个技巧:emelfm是一个文件管理器,就象Nautilus或Konqueror那样,启动可能有些慢而且又难以配置,但它真的可以工作。

http://www.binonabiso.com/en/Ubuntu-miniRAM-HOWTO.html


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3 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2005-04-14 13:22 
论坛管理员

注册: 2005-03-27 0:06
帖子: 10116
系统: Ubuntu 12.04
送出感谢: 7
接收感谢: 128
http://www.ubuntu.org.cn/docs/folder.20 ... ument_view


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当净其意如虚空,远离妄想及诸取,令心所向皆无碍


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 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2005-04-15 12:02 

注册: 2005-04-13 21:04
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对不起,我忘记了翻译题目了
我觉得最好翻译成——Ubuntu小内存系统安装指南


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5 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2005-10-03 0:28 

注册: 2005-09-19 19:36
帖子: 157
地址: CHINA
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我没有光盘,请问如何安装这个微型系统?


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6 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2006-07-30 2:47 
头像

注册: 2005-07-02 14:41
帖子: 4133
系统: Ubuntu 14.04 (Kylin)
送出感谢: 53
接收感谢: 11
有点过时了,先放着吧。


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