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 文章标题 : Howto: install Windows in Ubuntu Hoary for free
帖子发表于 : 2005-06-11 22:17 
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Howto install Windows in Ubuntu Hoary for free

It's not totally free, because you need a Windows Install CD.

From the start, this was in my case: How to Make Photoshop and Dreamweaver work under Ubuntu ..but read on if you need other Windows applications or Even other OS's under Ubuntu.

There are several other solutions out there, it's just a bit difficult to chooce the right one.
In this little howto we will take a brief look at some of the solutions and guide you through how to set up the free emulator that I have tested with win2000 and win98.



Before we start:

Guest = Your Operating System installed in the emulator
Host = In this case, Ubuntu Hoary

Do this at your own risk, there are know problems with different graphic cards, refresh rate and color settings.
If you notice any flickering on the screen when you change the screen resolution on the guest OS, try to shutdown first the guest, then completely reboot the host. if still it is flickering, there are probably something wrong with your graphic drivers or settings in the Xorg file.

I did this with a Fresh installation of Ubuntu Hoary Hedgehog 5.04 with 2.6.10-5 i386 kernel, Proper Nvidia drivers, Wireless Network and 768mb memory.

Please note that you preferably have some gigabites available while setting this up. I recommend taking some backups of both the guest and the host while configuring this.



First ...we will take a brief look at what I tried before I ended up with something that worked for me.

Crossover Office (Not Free)
Running Windows Programs under Linux, such as Office, Photoshop, Dreamweaver.. and lots more.

Note: Missing functions in Photoshop, unreadable menus.. supports a lot of Windows applications, but not the right for me.

Win4LinPro (Not Free)
Windows umulator for Windows2000 and WindowsXP (must be with sp2 or sp1)

Note: I tried this with WinXP, it was far from useable for my purpose, way to slow even with KQemu accelerator)

Win4Lin (Not Free)
Windows umulator for Win95 and Win98, WinME

Note: Needs a custom kernel wich is quite difficult under ubuntu, I have still not tried this, but will soon give it a go..

Qemu with KQemu (Free)
Emulator for Win95 and Win98, WinME, Win2000, WinXP, Knoppix, lot's and lots of different OS's.

Note: This is the ONE.. this is what we will go through here. I tried this with Win98, Win2000, Knoppix and will continue to try different OS's here. It is not as fast as VMware with Win2000, but it's a good free alternative.

VMware Workstation (Not Free)
Emulator for Windows all and lots of other OS's ...I had some problems with Win98.

Note: VMware is the best solution I have tried, I had a lot of trouble with crashes, screen flickering etc... but after I installed Qemu with KQemu it seems to work fine. I have no idea why and I don't think there are any relations. As long as I don't change screen resolution in the guest it's pretty stable now.



OK.. Let's start...

Step 1. RUNNING QEMU WITH WIN98
If you are just installing Win98, with the current version (qemu-0.7.0) KQemu will not work anyway, so you don't need to install it.

Win98 only, Just do:
$ apt-get install qemu
...and jump to step 2

If you deside to install Qemu with the KQemu accelerator you just need to start win98 with the extra command -no-kqemu , we will get back to this later anyway.



Step 1. RUNNING QEMU WITH KQEMU ACCELERATOR

Some of this information I ripped from: Nano Florestan at http://oui.com.br/n/content.php?article.21 a lot of the credits should go to him.

First we need to remove any previously installed Qemu and compile it with Kqemu

$ sudo apt-get remove qemu

Go to: http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/download.html
...and download these 2 files:
1) QEMU source code (Not the binary for i386 which I took the first time, silly me)
2) QEMU Accelerator Module

0.7.0 is the current version.

$ tar zxvf qemu-0.7.0.tar.gz

The Kqemu shall be unpacked into a subdirectory of the new qemu-0.7.0 directory

$ cd qemu-0.7.0
$ tar zxvf /location of downloaded files/kqemu-0.6.2-1.tar.gz

You now need to make sure you have some extra packets. First make sure you have the kernel headers installed by:

$ uname -a
..this will output the kernal version

Open Synaptic package manager and search for packages called "linux-headers". Several packages start with this name. Install the one that corresponds to your processor and your kernel version.

Still in Synaptic, choose the package you have just installed, click Properties and go to the "Installed Files" tab. Write down the directory where the files were copied. In my case, they were copied to: /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.10-5-386/

$ gedit configure

change the: kernel_path="/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.10-5-386"

$ sudo apt-get install libsdl1.2-dev
$ sudo apt-get install zlib1g-dev

Then check that everything is correct with:

$ ./configure

If everything is correct, proceed with:

$ make

Correct output to make will go on and on and output a lot of text...

If you did'nt get any errors you are now ready to install. If you get any errors or this does'nt work at all, make sure you have a gcc compiler in your system.

Now we are ready to install:

Note: Please check AgenT's suggestion of doing checkinstall instead of make install: http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthr...0873#post200873

$ sudo make install

If everything went ok, you can now start the qemu with the command

$ modprobe kqemu

Then we need to make this start when the computer boots

$ sudo gedit /etc/init.d/bootmisc.sh

Add these lines to the end just before "exit;"

# Start Qemu with KQemu accelerator
/sbin/modprobe kqemu
mknod /dev/kqemu c 250 0 # Create the KQEMU device
chmod 666 /dev/kqemu # Make it accessible to all users


Step 2. MAKING A VIRITUAL DISK WITH QEMU
First create a directory for the guest OS's. This should be done as the user you will use while running the guest OS

$ cd /home/your username
$ mkdir Qemu
$ cd Qemu

Then we will create the virtual hard drive, in my case for Win98 I used 2 gigabyte and 3,5 gigabyte for Win2000. We set the size with the (amount)M

$ qemu-img create hd.img 3500M


Step 3. INSTALLING THE GUEST OS

So... we now have the disk and need to install something on it..

first lets hava a look at the options for booting with Qemu
-boot gives the parameter of which device to boot from.

a = floppy
d = cdrom
c = hard drive


-fda /dev/fda
will tell qemu where to find the floppy drive
-fda /path/to/your/bootdisk.img
will tell qemu to boot from a bootdisk image. You can download images from www.bootdisk.com

PS: you can download an .exe bootdisk extractor and open it with Archive Manager and extract the bootdisk image


-cdrom /dev/cdrom
will tell qemu where to find the cdrom drive.
-cdrom /path/to/your/install_cd.iso
will tell qemu to use an iso instead of your cdrom drive.


-hda /path/to/your/new/viritual/hd.img
Will tell qemu which viritual harddrive to use. you can also use secondary drive with -hdb /path/to/your/new/viritual/secondary/hd.img


So here we go... If we have a bootable install cd and just want to use the cdrom drive, this is how it goes:
$ qemu -boot d -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda hd.img

If you need to start with different parameters, just modify and add to the end. If you install Win98, dont forget to add -no-kqemu at the end.


When the installation ask you to reboot, change the -boot d flag to -boot c for the virtual hard drive



Step 4. STARTING THE GUEST OS

Well.. we're sort of already there, again it's mostly just to change the -boot flag

$ qemu -boot c -fda /dev/fda -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda hd.img -user-net -pci -m 256 -k en


Description of other flags used in this startup:

-k en
Keybord layout.. works with some languages

-user-net
Lets you connect to the net

-pci -m 256
Amount of memory provided the guest OS

Note: I will not go into details about networking here.. at least not yet. Internet should probably work from the guest without any modifications. To set up shared folders between the guest and the host, a tip is. Install samba, then share the folders with SMB and add the flag -smb /shared/folder to your startup command.



Step 5. PERFORMANCE TWEAKING THE GUEST OS

Before you start tweaking the guest OS.. just copy the hd.img

$ cp hd.img hd.img.backup

Now find a good performance tweek site on the net for removing all unwanted processes for your OS
Win2000: http://www.techspot.com/tweaks/win2...ces/print.shtml



Step 6. CREATING A LAUNCER

Now finally you may want a launcher for your new OS..
Rightclick on the panel where you want to create the launcher and choose:

Add to Panel > Custom Application Launcher >
Name: Win2000
Command: qemu -boot c -fda /dev/fda -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda /path/to/your/hd.img -user-net -pci -m 256 -k en
Choose an icon for you new OS

Note: modify the command starter after your needs.



LINKS TO USEFULL INFORMATION

http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/index.html
http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/qemu-doc.html
http://www.debian-administration.org/?article=40
http://oui.com.br/n/content.php?article.21
http://www.carlsonhome.net/computer_help_log.php


Other OS images you can download and run under Qemu:
http://www.freeoszoo.org/ ...NICE!!!

Have fun...


Please correct me if something is wrong or can be done better.


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 文章标题 : Howto: 在Ubuntu免费安装Windows
帖子发表于 : 2005-06-13 16:23 

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=====整理完毕========

它不是完全免费的,因为你需要一盘Windows的安装CD。

出于开始,这是我的情况:怎样使Photoshop和Dreamweaver在Ubuntu下工作。但是,如果你在Ubuntu下需要其他的Windows应用,甚至其他操作系统,那么请继续阅读下去。


其实还有其他的解决方法,选择一个正确的方法是有点困难。
在这小小的howto中,我们将浏览一些解决方法,并且引导你通过howto去建立免费的仿真程序,这我已经用win2000和win98测试过了。


在我们开始之前:

客户机(Guest) =安装在仿真程序的操作系统
主机(Host) =在这里,是Ubuntu Hoary

做这个请自担风险,要知道不同的显卡、刷新率和颜色设置也许会有问题。
当你在客户机系统里改变屏幕刷新率时,如果你注意到屏幕有闪烁,首先想办法关闭客户机,然后完全重启主机。如果仍然闪烁,这很可能是你的显卡驱动或者Xorg文件的设置有问题。

我在以下环境操作的:一个新安装的Ubuntu Hoary Hedgehog 5.04,使用2.6.10-5 i386核心,正确的 Nvidia驱动,无线网卡和768mb内存。

请注意,当你设置时,有一些可利用的gigabites会更好。当配置时,我建议做一些客户机和主机的备份。

首先,我们将浏览一下,在我最终获得能为我工作的东西之前,我尝试了些什么。

Crossover Office(非免费)
在Linux下运行Windows程序,如Office, Photoshop, Dreamweaver等更多的。

注:在Photoshop中丢失函数,难以辨认的菜单...支持许多Windows应用程序,但不是我的正确选择。

Win4LinPro(非免费)
Windows2000 and WindowsXP(一定带sp2或sp1)的Windows仿真程序。

注:我用WinXP来试验,它远远未达到我方便使用的目的,即使加上KQemu accelerator仍然太慢。

Win4Lin(非免费)
Win95 and Win98, WinME的Windows仿真程序。

注:需要一个定制的核心,这在Ubuntu下是相当困难,我还没有试过,但是不久以后我会试试看。

Qemu with KQemu(免费)
Win95 and Win98, WinME, Win2000, WinXP, Knoppix和许许多多不同的操作系统的仿真器。

注:就是这一个。这就是我们将贯穿这里的。我用Win98, Win2000, Knoppix试验过,并将继续尝试不同的操作系统。它没有使用Win2000的VMware这么快,但它是一个不错的免费选择。

VMware Workstation(非免费)
全部Windows和许多其他操作系统的仿真程序。我在用Win98时遇到一些问题。

注:VMware是我试验过最好的解决方法,我有过许多崩溃、屏幕闪烁等的问题,但是当我安装了Qemu with KQemu后,它看起来工作得很好。我不清楚为什么,并且不认为这有什么关系。只要我不改变客户机的屏幕刷新率,它就相当稳定。


OK.. Let's start...
好了,让我们开始吧!

第一步,运行 QEMU 和 WIN98
如果你仅仅安装Win98,使用当前的版本(qemu-0.7.0)。KQemu无论如何也不工作,所以你不需要安装它了。

仅仅要Win98,只要做:
代码:
$ apt-get install qemu

然后跳到第二步。

如果你决定安装带有KQemu accelerator的Qemu(Qemu with the KQemu accelerator),你只需要使用附加命令 -no-kqemu来启动Win98,无论如何,随后我们将返回这里。

第一步,运行带有KQEMU ACCELERATOR的QEMU

一些信息我是取自于:Nano Florestan 在http://oui.com.br/n/content.php?article.21 大部分功劳应该归他。

首先,我们需要删除以前安装的Qemu,并用Kqemu来编译它。
代码:
$ sudo apt-get remove qemu


来到http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/download.html
下载这两个文件:
1) QEMU source code (不是i386的二进制包( binary for i386),我第一次也用了它,真糊涂)
2) QEMU Accelerator Module

目前的版本是0.7.0

代码:
$ tar zxvf qemu-0.7.0.tar.gz


Kqemu必需解压缩在新的qemu-0.7.0目录下的一个子目录
代码:
$ cd qemu-0.7.0
$ tar zxvf /location of downloaded files/kqemu-0.6.2-1.tar.gz


现在你需要确定你有一些额外的包。首先确定你安装了kernel headers:
代码:
$ uname -a


这将显示核心版本。

打开新立得软件包管理器,搜索名叫“linux-headers”的软件包。会有几个软件包以这名称开头的。安装符合你的处理器和核心版本的那一个。

仍是在新立得,选择你刚刚安装的软件包,点击属性,来到“已安装的文件”页。抄下文件被复制到的目录。在我这,它们被复制到:
/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.10-5-386/

代码:
 $ gedit configure


改变这里:kernel_path="/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.10-5-386"

代码:
$ sudo apt-get install libsdl1.2-dev
$ sudo apt-get install zlib1g-dev


然后检查是否所有东西都正确:
代码:
$ ./configure


如果所有东西都正确无误,继续进行:

代码:
$ make


正确的make,输出显示将继续下去,并且显示许多文字...

如果没有任何错误,你现在可以准备安装。如果有任何问题或者它完全不工作,那么请确定在你的系统中是否有一个gcc编译程序。

现在我们准备安装:

注:请查看AgenT的用checkinstall代替make install的建议:http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthr...0873#post200873

代码:
$ sudo make install


如果一切顺利,我们现在可以启动qemu,用以下命令:

代码:
$ modprobe kqemu


然后我们需要使它在计算机启动时启动:

代码:
$ sudo gedit /etc/init.d/bootmisc.sh


在末尾,就在"exit"前添加这些行:

代码:
 # Start Qemu with KQemu accelerator
/sbin/modprobe kqemu
mknod /dev/kqemu c 250 0 # Create the KQEMU device
chmod 666 /dev/kqemu # Make it accessible to all users


第二步,用Qemu制作一个虚拟硬盘
首先,为客户机系统建立一个目录。这些必须由你运行客户机系统时所用的用户来完成。
代码:
$ cd /home/你的用户名
$ mkdir Qemu
$ cd Qemu


然后我们将建立虚拟硬盘,在我这里,对Win98我用2 gigabyte,对Win2000我用3,5 gigabyte。我们用(总数)M来设置大小。

代码:
$ qemu-img create hd.img 3500M


第三步,安装客户机操作系统

如此,我们现在有了硬盘,并且需要安装一些东西上去。

首先,让我们看看启动Qemu的选项:
-boot 给出从哪一个设置启动的参数
a = 软驱
d = cdrom
c = 硬盘

-fda /dev/fda
会告诉qemu在哪里找到软驱

-fda /你的/启动盘镜像/路径/bootdisk.img
会告诉qemu从一个启动盘镜像启动。你可以从www.bootdisk.com下载镜像。

PS:你可以下载一个.exe的启动盘提取器(bootdisk extractor),然后用Archive Manager打开,提取出启动盘镜像。

-cdrom /dev/cdrom
会告诉qemu在哪里找到cdrom。

-cdrom /你的/ISO文件/路径/install_cd.iso
会告诉qemu用一个iso文件代替你的cdrom驱动器。

-hda /你的/新虚拟硬盘/路径/hd.img
会告诉qemu使用哪一个虚拟硬盘。你也可以使用第二个硬盘,通过:
-hdb /你的/第二个新虚拟硬盘/路径/hd.img

好了,我们开始吧。如果我们有一个可引导的安装CD,那只需要使用cdrom驱动器,这里是怎么执行的方法:
代码:
$ qemu -boot d -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda hd.img


如果我们需要使用不同的参数来启动,只要修改并添加到末尾。如果你安装Win98,不要忘记在末尾加上 -no-kqemu。

当安装程序询问你重启,为了使用虚拟硬盘,把 -boot d 标志改为 -boot c。


第四步,启动客户机系统

好,我们准备得差不多了,再一次:仅仅主要改变 -boot标志。

代码:
$ qemu -boot c -fda /dev/fda -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda hd.img -user-net -pci -m 256 -k en


在启动时使用到的其他标志的说明:

-k en
键盘布局,以某种语言工作

-user-net
让你联上网

-pci -m 256
在客户机系统下的内存总数

注:在这里,我将不详谈连网的详细资料,至少还没有。或许未经任何改动,Internet都可以在客户机工作。对于建立客户机与主机的共享文件夹,这有一个提示。安装samba,然后通过SMB共享文件夹,并且在你的启动命令里添加标志 -smb /共享/文件夹


第五步,客户机的性能优化

在开始优化客户机系统前,复制一下hd.img
代码:
$ cp hd.img hd.img.backup


现在找到一个好的性能优化网站,可以为你的操作系统移走全部多余的进程
Win2000: http://www.techspot.com/tweaks/win2...ces/print.shtml

第六步,建立一个启动器

最后,你也许需要为你的新操作系统建立一个启动器。
在你想建立启动器的面板右击,并选择:

添加到面板>自定义应用程序启动器>
Name:Win2000
Command:qemu -boot c -fda /dev/fda -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda /path/to/your/hd.img -user-net -pci -m 256 -k en
为你的新操作系统选择一个图标。

注:以后如果你有需要,可以修改启动器的Command。


有用信息的链接:

http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/index.html
http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/qemu-doc.html
http://www.debian-administration.org/?article=40
http://oui.com.br/n/content.php?article.21
http://www.carlsonhome.net/computer_help_log.php


你可以下载并运行在Qemu的其他操作系统镜像:

http://www.freeoszoo.org/


好的,

玩得开心!


如果有错误的或者可以做得更好的地方,请指正!
======整理完毕=====


_________________
独自看一看大海
总想起身边走在路上的朋友
Lenovo E290-420[Celeron-M420/256M/60G/Intel GMA950]


最后由 yongyi 编辑于 2005-06-14 8:33,总共编辑了 1 次

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帖子发表于 : 2005-06-13 22:54 
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赞一个!!
YongYi好样的!!


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帖子发表于 : 2005-06-14 2:02 

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Win4LinPro (Not Free)
Windows umulator for Windows2000 and WindowsXP (must be with sp2 or sp1)

Note: I tried this with WinXP, it was far from useable for my purpose, way to slow even with KQemu accelerator)

Win4Lin (Not Free)
Windows umulator for Win95 and Win98, WinME

Note: Needs a custom kernel wich is quite difficult under ubuntu, I have still not tried this, but will soon give it a go..

我认为:

"way to slow even with KQemu accelerator"应该是“即使加上KQemu加速器仍然太慢”

"I have still not tried this, but will soon give it a go"应该是“我还没有试过,但是不久以后我会试试看”


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帖子发表于 : 2005-06-14 8:25 

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seraphq 写道:
Win4LinPro (Not Free)
Windows umulator for Windows2000 and WindowsXP (must be with sp2 or sp1)

Note: I tried this with WinXP, it was far from useable for my purpose, way to slow even with KQemu accelerator)

Win4Lin (Not Free)
Windows umulator for Win95 and Win98, WinME

Note: Needs a custom kernel wich is quite difficult under ubuntu, I have still not tried this, but will soon give it a go..

我认为:

"way to slow even with KQemu accelerator"应该是“即使加上KQemu加速器仍然太慢”

"I have still not tried this, but will soon give it a go"应该是“我还没有试过,但是不久以后我会试试看”


非常感谢!


_________________
独自看一看大海
总想起身边走在路上的朋友
Lenovo E290-420[Celeron-M420/256M/60G/Intel GMA950]


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http://www.ubuntu.org.cn/support/docume ... i/windows/


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当净其意如虚空,远离妄想及诸取,令心所向皆无碍


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