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 文章标题 : 资源共享:我的ubuntu 使用历程(4)
帖子发表于 : 2006-02-18 15:14 

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ubuntu安装其他(1、ubuntu server-fluxbox-iconbox-quickrun)
==============================================================
李家芳(leejiafang@tom.com)

支持sawfish的桌面安装,安装ubuntu server,设定Rox作为桌面管理器,fluxbox作为窗口管理器。
对于其他发行版(例如ubuntu,kubuntu)等,可以采用在安装的时候选择server选项安装。后面的配置是一样的。

0、前期准备
首先安装 ubuntu server 510 系统,对于其他发行版(例如ubuntu,kubuntu)等,可以采用在安装的时候选择server选项安装。后面的配置是一样的。
然后:

安装vsftpd
---------
# sudo su -
# apt-setup

# apt-get install vsftpd
# vi /etc/vsftpd.conf
# mkdir /home/ftp/pub
# chmod 777 /home/ftp/pub
# cd /etc/init.d
# ./vsftpd restart

# sudo su -
# apt-setup
# vi /etc/apt/sources.list
------------------------------------------
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ breezy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ breezy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ breezy-updates main restricted universe multiverse


deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
--------------------------------------------------------
# apt-get update

安装unzip,unrar
-------
# apt-get install unzip
# apt-get install unrar


1.首先安装编译环境:

# apt-get install build-essential
# apt-get install flex bison
# apt-get install libgtk2.0-dev libwnck-common libwnck-dev libxml2
# apt-get install python2.4-dev
# apt-get install dbus libdbus-glib-1-dev libxmu-dev libxmuu-dev libimlib2-dev
# apt-get install libglib-dev libgtk2-perl

2.安装fluxbox等基础软件包:

# apt-get install imagemagick rox-filer xscreensaver sudo xterm mpd mpc xmms xmms-shell xmms-find

因为apt-get install fluxbox安装的版本太低,启动非常慢,所以直接下载源码编译安装:
到http://www.fluxbox.org/下载最新的devel版本,目前是fluxbox-0.9.14.tar.gz,编译:
# tar zxvf fluxbox-0.9.14.tar.gz
# cd fluxbox-0.9.14
# ./configure
# make
# make install


配置fluxbox 作为窗口管理器:
修改 /etc/X11/Xsession.d/ 目录下的 99xorg-common_start 文件,把文件中的 exec $STARTUP 一行前面加上exec startfluxbox 这句:
----------------------
exec startfluxbox
#exec $STARTUP
---------------------


3.安装下载的软件包:

iconbox_0.2.tar.gz 设定启动程序工具条
需要先安装libgtk2-perl
# apt-get install libgtk2-perl

# tar zxvf iconbox_0.2.tar.gz
# cd iconbox-0.2
# make install //configure,make这步这里不用。
安装完成以后,就可以在终端下输入iconboxconf启动:
$ iconboxconf
配置iconbox的启动程序及其图标。
配置完成以后保存,并启动iconbox:
$ iconbox &

ftmenu-0.3.tar.gz 在taskbar上加一个菜单按钮
# tar zxvf ftmenu-0.3.tar.gz
# cd ftmenu-0.3
./configure
# make
# make install

gsetroot-1.0.tar.gz 更换墙纸等
需要先安装Esetroot,Eterm
# apt-get install eterm

# tar zxvf gsetroot-1.0.tar.gz
# cd gsetroot-1.0
# ./configure
# make
# make install
安装完成以后,就可以在终端下输入gsetroot启动:
$ gsetroot
可以设定墙纸。
这种办法设定的墙纸不能保留,需要采用后面修改startup文件的方法。

quickrun-0.4.tar.gz 快速启动程序命令行
需要先安装libgtk1.2-dev
# apt-get install libgtk1.2-dev

# ./configure
# make
# make install
安装完成以后,就可以在edit ~/.fluxbox/keys:
It now features a history list and filename completion, accessible
by pressing the "Esc" or escape key.

In fluxbox, I edit ~/.fluxbox/keys and add the following line:

Mod4 q :ExecCommand /usr/local/bin/quickrun

So, when I type Win-q, the quickrun window pops up. (The Win key is
the key with the windows symbol on it on Microsoft
keyboards). Depending on the window manager you use, you'll probably
have to set things up differently.


fbnews-0.5.tar.gz RSS新闻集成到fluxbox菜单条内。


fluxmod_all_v1.tar.bz2


demnu-3.3.2.tar.bz2 菜单条配置工具。



fluxspace-0.4.0_alpha.tar.gz fluxbox集成桌面。



4.启动fluxbox:

修改/etc/X11/Xsession.d/99xorg-common-start文件:
将原来的exec $STARTUP注释掉,并加入代码:

exec startfluxbox
# exec $STARTUP

启动x,即可进入fluxbox桌面。
$ startx

进入桌面后,在终端输入:

$ ftmenu &
就可以在fluxbox的taskbar上加一个菜单的按钮,配置按钮图标:
$ vi ~/.fluxbox/menu
在第一行的后面加入图标文件目录:
[begin] (Fluxbox) </home/lee/.fluxbox/img/fb.xpm>
保存,重新启动ftmenu即可。

$ iconboxconf
配置iconbox的启动程序及其图标。
配置完成以后保存,并启动iconbox:
$ iconbox &


5.让fluxbox自动加载ftmenu,iconbox:

$ vi ~/.fluxbox/startup
---------------------------------------------------------
# fluxbox startup-script:
#
# Lines starting with a '#' are ignored.

# You can set your favourite wallpaper here if you don't want
# to do it from your style.
设定墙纸:
修改以下一行:
fbsetbg -f ~/newjpg/1600FG100_2_003.jpg
注释掉以下行:
#/usr/local/bin/fbsetroot -solid black

# Applications you want to run with fluxbox.
# MAKE SURE THAT APPS THAT KEEP RUNNING HAVE AN ''&'' AT THE END.
#
# unclutter -idle 2 &
# wmnd &
# wmsmixer -w &
# idesk &

在这里加入:
ftmenu &
iconbox &
gdeskcal &
gkrellm &

# And last but not least we start fluxbox.
# Because it is the last app you have to run it with ''exec'' before it.

exec /usr/bin/fluxbox
# or if you want to keep a log:
-------------------------------------------------

6.自动启动quickrun:

$ vi ~/.fluxbox/keys:
add the following line:

Mod4 q :ExecCommand /usr/local/bin/quickrun


按Win-q键, 就可以弹出命令行输入窗口。




播放电影之前,先使用alsamixer配置声音,把video的声音打开,否则没有声音。



配置输入法fcitx:
----------------
安装:
$sudo apt-get install fcitx
$sudo sh -c " echo 'export XMODIFIERS=@im=fcitx ; export GTK_IM_MODULE="fcitx" ; fcitx ' > /etc/X11/Xsession.d/95xinput "
$sudo chmod +755 /etc/X11/Xsession.d/95xinput

重新启动Xwindow完成。按 Ctrl + 空格 键激活输入法。

配置fcitx:
# cd ~/.fcitx
# vi config 或者使用rox打开以后直接单击文件修改(缺省为mousepad打开)。修改如下:

----
显示字体大小=11
......
中英文快速切换键=L_SHIFT
--------------------------


取消时间同步:
----------------
可以运行如下命令来取消它

sudo update-rc.d -f ntpdate remove

如果想找回ntpdate,可以运行

sudo update-rc.d ntpdate start 51 S


时间设定:
----------
为了使系统不使用UTC时间(在虚拟机中总是导致时间错误),使用localtime,修改/etc/default/rcS文件:

UTC=yes
改为
UTC=no

然后重新启动系统。



使用xp带的字体来进行中文美化
====================
1、xpfonts.rar当中的文件说明:

SURSONG.TTF---WinXP字体文件,拷贝到/usr/share/fonts/truetype/目录;
simsun.ttc---WinXP字体文件,拷贝到/usr/share/fonts/truetype/目录;
tahoma.ttf---WinXP字体文件,拷贝到/usr/share/fonts/truetype/目录;

fonts.conf---X-window字体配置文件,拷贝到/etc/fonts/目录;
local.conf---X-window字体配置文件,拷贝到/etc/fonts/目录;


拷贝3个字体文件(在windows\fonts\目录下,simsun.ttc SURSONG.TTF tahoma.ttf)到/usr/share/fonts/truetype/ 目录, 命令:
可以使用本说明目录下提供的xpfonts.rar压缩包中提供的xp字体文件,先将字体文件FTP到ubuntu的/home/ftp/pub目录:
$sudo su -
# apt-get install unrar
# mv /home/ftp/pub/xpfonts.rar /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
# cd /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
# unrar x xpfonts.rar

更新linux字体列表,命令:

$sudo fc-cache -f

修改/etc/fonts/fonts.conf的字体渲染顺序,使用xpfonts.rar里提供的fonts.conf文件替换原来的fonts.conf文件:

# cp /etc/fonts/fonts.conf /etc/fonts/fonts.conf.old
# mv /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fonts.conf /etc/fonts/

为了取消使用XP字体时的平滑效果(导致字体模糊),将xpfonts.rar里提供文件local.conf拷贝到/etc/fonts目录下即可:
# mv /usr/share/fonts/truetype/local.conf /etc/fonts/


处理GTK1程序的中文乱码问题?执行:

$sudo ln -s /etc/gtk/gtkrc.zh_CN /etc/gtk/gtkrc.zh_CN.utf-8


重启xwindows。


附录:
1、xpfonts.rar当中的文件说明:

SURSONG.TTF---WinXP字体文件,拷贝到/usr/share/fonts/truetype/目录;
simsun.ttc---WinXP字体文件,拷贝到/usr/share/fonts/truetype/目录;
tahoma.ttf---WinXP字体文件,拷贝到/usr/share/fonts/truetype/目录;

fonts.conf---X-window字体配置文件,拷贝到/etc/fonts/目录;
local.conf---X-window字体配置文件,拷贝到/etc/fonts/目录;



2、为了取消使用XP字体时的平滑效果(导致字体模糊),将以下文件local.conf拷贝到/etc/fonts目录下即可:

/etc/fonts/local.conf 文件内容:
---------------------
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
<fontconfig>
<dir>/usr/share/fonts</dir>
<!-- Default fonts -->
<match target="font">
<test name="pixelsize" compare="less_eq">
<double>14</double>
</test>
<edit name="antialias" mode="assign">
<bool>false</bool>
</edit>
</match>
<match target="font">
<test name="size" compare="less_eq">
<double>14</double>
</test>
<edit name="antialias" mode="assign">
<bool>false</bool>
</edit>
</match>
</fontconfig>
-------------------------


使用园体美化
=============
到ubuntu.org.cn上下载美化字体文件VeraSansYuanTi.tar.gz;
$ sudo su -
# cd /home/ftp/pub
# mv VeraSansYuanTi.tar.gz /usr/share/fonts
# cd /usr/share/fonts
# tar zxvf VeraSansYuanTi.tar.gz
# fc-cache -f
# cp /etc/fonts/fonts.conf /etc/fonts/fonts.conf.old
# cp /usr/share/fonts/VeraSansYuanTi/fonts.conf /etc/fonts/

重启X,同时按住 Ctrl +Alt + 退格键 重启 X 。 完成美化。




HOWTO: Set Background Wallpaper in Fluxbox?
By Jon | Related entries in How To

Flux box isn’t like KDE or Gnome in the sense that there’s a ‘desktop configuration tool’. To change the desktop wallpaper, for example. you’ll have to drop into a terminal window. It’s not hard, just different.

1. Get the image you’d like to use as your desktop wallpaper downloaded or otherwise saved somewhere on your sytem
2. Open a terminal window and use your favorite text editor to open your ~/.fluxbox/startup file.
3. Look for a line that starts with the command fbsetbg. If you see one, edit it to reflect the path to your new background image. If you don’t see such a line, make a new one as such (note: depending on your screen size you may see this as two lines, this should be one line in your startup file:

fbsetbg -f /home/jon/.fluxbox/backgrounds/my_background.jpg





iconbox配置命令行及其图标参考:主要是mplayer,pppconfig等的命令。
选自/var/lib/fbpanel/menu文件。
--------------------------------


# Automatically generated file. Do not edit (see /usr/share/doc/menu/html/index.html)

menu {
name = Apps
menu {
name = Editors
item {
name = MousePad
action = /usr/bin/mousepad
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/mousepad.xpm
}
item {
name = Nano
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Nano' -e /bin/nano
image = /usr/share/nano/nano-menu.xpm
}
}
menu {
name = Graphics
item {
name = The GIMP
action = /usr/bin/gimp-2.2
image = /usr/share/gimp/2.0/images/wilber-icon.png
}
}
menu {
name = Net
item {
name = Downloader for X
action = /usr/bin/nt
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/nt.xpm
}
item {
name = Firefox Web Browser
action = firefox
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/firefox.xpm
}
item {
name = Telnet
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Telnet' -e /usr/bin/telnet
}
item {
name = w3m
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'w3m' -e /usr/bin/w3m /usr/share/doc/w3m/MANUAL.html
}
}
menu {
name = Programming
item {
name = Python (v2.4)
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Python (v2.4)' -e /usr/bin/python2.4
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/python2.4-32.xpm
}
}
menu {
name = Shells
item {
name = Bash
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Bash' -e /bin/bash --login
}
item {
name = Dash
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Dash' -e /bin/dash -i
}
item {
name = Sh
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Sh' -e /bin/sh --login
}
}
menu {
name = Sound
item {
name = wmXMMS
action = wmxmms
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/wmxmms_32.xpm
}
item {
name = XMMS
action = xmms
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/xmms.xpm
}
}
menu {
name = System
menu {
name = Admin
item {
name = alsaconf
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'alsaconf' -e /usr/sbin/su-to-root -p root -c /usr/sbin/alsaconf
}
item {
name = pppconfig
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'pppconfig' -e /usr/sbin/su-to-root -p root -c /usr/sbin/pppconfig
}
}
item {
name = aptitude
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'aptitude' -e /usr/bin/aptitude
}
item {
name = DSL/PPPoE configuration tool
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'DSL/PPPoE configuration tool' -e /usr/sbin/pppoeconf
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/pppoeconf.xpm
}
item {
name = GKrellM
action = /usr/bin/gkrellm
image = /usr/share/pixmaps//gkrellm.xpm
}
menu {
name = Gnome
item {
name = Gnome Control Center
action = /usr/bin/gnome-control-center
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/control-center2.xpm
}
}
item {
name = pstree
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'pstree' -e /usr/bin/pstree.x11
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/pstree16.xpm
}
item {
name = reportbug
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'reportbug' -e /usr/bin/reportbug --exit-prompt
}
item {
name = ROX Filer
action = /usr/bin/rox
}
item {
name = Run as different user (GKsu)
action = /usr/bin/gksuexec
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/gksuexec-debian.xpm
}
item {
name = Synaptic Package Manager
action = /usr/bin/gksudo /usr/sbin/synaptic
image = /usr/share/synaptic/pixmaps/synaptic_32x32.xpm
}
item {
name = Top
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Top' -e /usr/bin/top
}
item {
name = X-Terminal as root (GKsu)
action = /usr/bin/gksu -u root /usr/bin/x-terminal-emulator
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/gksu-debian.xpm
}
}
menu {
name = Tools
item {
name = fbpager
action = /usr/bin/fbpager
}
item {
name = fbpanel
action = /usr/bin/fbpanel
}
item {
name = fluxconf
action = /usr/bin/fluxbare
}
item {
name = gdeskcal
action = /usr/bin/gdeskcal
}
item {
name = gdesklets
action = /usr/bin/gdesklets
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/gdesklets.png
}
}
menu {
name = Viewers
item {
name = GQview
action = /usr/bin/gqview
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/gqview.xpm
}
item {
name = MPlayer
action = /usr/bin/gmplayer < /dev/null
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/mplayer.xpm
}
}
}
menu {
name = Help
item {
name = Info
action = x-terminal-emulator -T 'Info' -e info
}
}
menu {
name = XShells
item {
name = Eterm
action = /usr/bin/Eterm
}
item {
name = Gnome Terminal
action = /usr/bin/gnome-terminal
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/gnome-terminal.xpm
}
item {
name = Terminal
action = /usr/bin/xfce4-terminal
image = /usr/share/pixmaps/terminal.xpm
}
}


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