当前时区为 UTC + 8 小时



发表新帖 回复这个主题  [ 5 篇帖子 ] 
作者 内容
1 楼 
 文章标题 : 声音解决方案及游戏
帖子发表于 : 2007-06-07 12:26 

注册: 2007-05-07 23:19
帖子: 7
送出感谢: 0 次
接收感谢: 0 次
本人是一菜鸟,配置如下:amd 4000+ /NF550/1G/160G/7600GS/DVDRW/
装的是F7 i386,光盘启动后按TAB键加入 noapic=off 安装完成后,删除了F7的内容,望对ubuntu的朋友有些帮助。

一、解决找到声卡,但是声卡无声的问题。
1、终端运行 alsamixer按F5将所有音量全开
2、gedit /etc/modprobe.conf(ubuntu 好像是/etc/modprobe.d/sound还是?)
将里面的options snd-hda-intel index=0 一项替换为
options snd-hda-intel position_fix=1 model=3stack或
options snd-hda-intel single_cmd=1 model=laptop-eapd
注:不同的板子,这里可能有所不同,不过可以先试试上面的这个!我的主板是七彩虹的 C.NF5-DH。
注意:如果有朋友和我用一样的板子并且安装了colorful,请先卸载colorful,安装完F7后再安装,否则会出现不能安装引导的问题!
然后重新加载声音。

关于找到声卡而没有声音的问题的解决办法:
1、运行alsamixer,查看芯片型号,即Chip后面的内容,如我的是
Card: HDA NVidia │
│ Chip: Realtek ALC861-VD │
│ View: [Playback] Capture All │
│ Item: Headphone
复制chip后面的内容,如我的:ALC861到第4楼去搜索
搜索到的内容如下:
ALC861/660
3stack 3-jack
3stack-dig 3-jack with SPDIF I/O
6stack-dig 6-jack with SPDIF I/O
3stack-660 3-jack (for ALC660)
uniwill-m31 Uniwill M31 laptop
toshiba Toshiba laptop support
asus Asus laptop support
asus-laptop ASUS F2/F3 laptops
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)
向上一直看,是不是有个
Module snd-hda-intel
--------------------

Module for Intel HD Audio (ICH6, ICH6M, ESB2, ICH7, ICH8),
ATI SB450, SB600, RS600,
VIA VT8251/VT8237A,
SIS966, ULI M5461

model - force the model name
position_fix - Fix DMA pointer (0 = auto, 1 = none, 2 = POSBUF, 3 = FIFO size)
single_cmd - Use single immediate commands to communicate with
codecs (for debugging only)
enable_msi - Enable Message Signaled Interrupt (MSI) (default = off)
This module supports one card and autoprobe.
好了,现在知道了我的声卡模块是snd-hda-intel,并且知道了 position_fix参数的意义.

2、尝试里面的参数,gedit /etc/modprobe.conf (ubuntu 好像是/etc/modprobe.d/sound还是?),加在 /etc/modprobe.conf (ubuntu 好像是/etc/modprobe.d/sound还是?)中,经过测试知道,以下的参数是可以工作的。
options snd-hda-intel position_fix=1 model=3stack
我的f7 /etc/modprobe.conf的内容:
alias eth0 r8169
alias scsi_hostadapter sata_nv
alias scsi_hostadapter1 pata_amd
alias snd-card-0 snd-hda-intel
options snd-card-0 index=0
options snd-hda-intel position_fix=1 model=3stack

二、安装超快下载器
1、downthemall
启动FireFox
工具-->附加软件
查找downthemall
找到后安装,安装完成会提示你重启firefox ,重启firefox生效!
Linux上五十个最佳的FireFox扩展插件
http://industry.ccidnet.com/art/321/...1060291_1.html

2、amule,d4x
apt install amule d4x

三、安装nvidia驱动
本人这次用的是beta版的驱动,效果还不错。
下载地址:http://us.download.nvidia.com/XFree8...14.06-pkg1.run
下载后 ctrl+alt+F2 用root登录
init 3
cd 到你驱动的下载路径
sh ./NVIDIA-Linux-x86-100.14.06-pkg1
根据提示安装完成后
init 5

gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
找到 Section "Module" ,加入
Load "i2c"
Load "bitmap"
Load "ddc"
Load "extmod"
Load "freetype"
Load "int10"
Load "type1"
Load "vbe"
最终如下:
Section "Module"
Load "glx"
Load "i2c"
Load "bitmap"
Load "ddc"
Load "extmod"
Load "freetype"
Load "int10"
Load "type1"
Load "vbe"
EndSection

四、安装网络电视sopcast.

sopcast.网络电视的下载地址
http://www.sopcast.com/cn/download/
下载后编译,运行sopcast.-->配置-->里面的播放器设为mplayer.

五、游戏

一种方式是用wine
apt install wine
不过我装了后连QQ2006都没用起,不能启动,不知是什么原因!

另一种方式是安装cedega6.0
这个是让你在Linux下也能够玩到你心爱的魔兽,CS,极品飞车,半条命2 ,魔兽世界的软件。
到这里下载:
WEBNAME:http://amd.streamload.com
USERNAME:LGP
PASSWORD:LGP2008
LOGIN --> Go TO My Account -->My Files
或到: http://linuxdesktop.cn/wp-content/up...ga.6.0.tar.bz2

第一次运行TransGaming Cedega可能要下些东西,完毕后Transgaming-->Install Local Update导入升级包即可。
以下以war3为例:
File-->install Game folder 处任意填一个,比如war;
gddb entry 处选择Warcraft III The Frozen Throne
installer 处选择你的游戏安装路径
countine

以窗口运行冰封王座的方法
File-->install Game folder 处任意填一个,比如war;
在左侧单击右键-->add shortcut
name 处随便写一个,比如war;
path to program 处选择你的冰封王座的路径
command line options 处填-windows,
GDDB profile 处选择Warcraft III The Frozen Throne
单击OK,选择右面的war 点击 play 就可以了!


最后由 cnspray 编辑于 2007-06-07 13:19,总共编辑了 4 次

页首
 用户资料  
 
2 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2007-06-07 12:38 
头像

注册: 2006-04-12 18:54
帖子: 4671
送出感谢: 0 次
接收感谢: 7
强烈建议ubuntu新人不要看这篇文章

U和F的环境差异晒是非常大的


_________________
荃创想


页首
 用户资料  
 
3 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2007-06-07 12:39 
头像

注册: 2006-09-30 0:32
帖子: 2717
地址: 巴拉特星系第四行星──海尼森
送出感谢: 0 次
接收感谢: 0 次
软件安装的部分,修改一下吧

fc 学 debian的才是

留下游戏的cedega6就好了,其他都没什么用


_________________
头可断,血可流,靓女不可不追求
相艾唔好口,够姜就只抽

BARTON 2500+/1536MDDR400
EP8RDA3G/MX4000 128M64bit 8X
DiamondPlus9-6Y080L0-ATA133
Samsung743DF
HiweedDesktop-1.0


页首
 用户资料  
 
4 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2007-06-07 13:12 

注册: 2007-05-07 23:19
帖子: 7
送出感谢: 0 次
接收感谢: 0 次
以下是ALSA-Configuration.txt的内容

Advanced Linux Sound Architecture - Driver
==========================================
Configuration guide


Kernel Configuration
====================

To enable ALSA support you need at least to build the kernel with
primary sound card support (CONFIG_SOUND). Since ALSA can emulate OSS,
you don't have to choose any of the OSS modules.

Enable "OSS API emulation" (CONFIG_SND_OSSEMUL) and both OSS mixer and
PCM supports if you want to run OSS applications with ALSA.

If you want to support the WaveTable functionality on cards such as
SB Live! then you need to enable "Sequencer support"
(CONFIG_SND_SEQUENCER).

To make ALSA debug messages more verbose, enable the "Verbose printk"
and "Debug" options. To check for memory leaks, turn on "Debug memory"
too. "Debug detection" will add checks for the detection of cards.

Please note that all the ALSA ISA drivers support the Linux isapnp API
(if the card supports ISA PnP). You don't need to configure the cards
using isapnptools.


Creating ALSA devices
=====================

This depends on your distribution, but normally you use the /dev/MAKEDEV
script to create the necessary device nodes. On some systems you use a
script named 'snddevices'.


Module parameters
=================

The user can load modules with options. If the module supports more than
one card and you have more than one card of the same type then you can
specify multiple values for the option separated by commas.

Prior to version 0.9.0rc4 options had a 'snd_' prefix. This was removed.

Module snd
----------

The core ALSA module. It is used by all ALSA card drivers.
It takes the following options which have global effects.

major - major number for sound driver
- Default: 116
cards_limit
- limiting card index for auto-loading (1-8)
- Default: 1
- For auto-loading more than one card, specify this
option together with snd-card-X aliases.


Module snd-pcm-oss
------------------

The PCM OSS emulation module.
This module takes options which change the mapping of devices.

dsp_map - PCM device number maps assigned to the 1st OSS device.
- Default: 0
adsp_map - PCM device number maps assigned to the 2st OSS device.
- Default: 1
nonblock_open
- Don't block opening busy PCM devices. Default: 1

For example, when dsp_map=2, /dev/dsp will be mapped to PCM #2 of
the card #0. Similarly, when adsp_map=0, /dev/adsp will be mapped
to PCM #0 of the card #0.
For changing the second or later card, specify the option with
commas, such like "dsp_map=0,1".

nonblock_open option is used to change the behavior of the PCM
regarding opening the device. When this option is non-zero,
opening a busy OSS PCM device won't be blocked but return
immediately with EAGAIN (just like O_NONBLOCK flag).

Module snd-rawmidi
------------------

This module takes options which change the mapping of devices.
similar to those of the snd-pcm-oss module.

midi_map - MIDI device number maps assigned to the 1st OSS device.
- Default: 0
amidi_map - MIDI device number maps assigned to the 2st OSS device.
- Default: 1

Common parameters for top sound card modules
--------------------------------------------

Each of top level sound card module takes the following options.

index - index (slot #) of sound card
- Values: 0 through 31 or negative
- If nonnegative, assign that index number
- if negative, interpret as a bitmask of permissible
indices; the first free permitted index is assigned
- Default: -1
id - card ID (identifier or name)
- Can be up to 15 characters long
- Default: the card type
- A directory by this name is created under /proc/asound/
containing information about the card
- This ID can be used instead of the index number in
identifying the card
enable - enable card
- Default: enabled, for PCI and ISA PnP cards

Module snd-adlib
----------------

Module for AdLib FM cards.

port - port # for OPL chip

This module supports multiple cards. It does not support autoprobe, so
the port must be specified. For actual AdLib FM cards it will be 0x388.
Note that this card does not have PCM support and no mixer; only FM
synthesis.

Make sure you have "sbiload" from the alsa-tools package available and,
after loading the module, find out the assigned ALSA sequencer port
number through "sbiload -l". Example output:

Port Client name Port name
64:0 OPL2 FM synth OPL2 FM Port

Load the std.sb and drums.sb patches also supplied by sbiload:

sbiload -p 64:0 std.sb drums.sb

If you use this driver to drive an OPL3, you can use std.o3 and drums.o3
instead. To have the card produce sound, use aplaymidi from alsa-utils:

aplaymidi -p 64:0 foo.mid

Module snd-ad1816a
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Analog Devices AD1816A/AD1815 ISA chips.

port - port # for AD1816A chip (PnP setup)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup)
fm_port - port # for OPL3 (PnP setup)
irq - IRQ # for AD1816A chip (PnP setup)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup)
dma1 - first DMA # for AD1816A chip (PnP setup)
dma2 - second DMA # for AD1816A chip (PnP setup)
clockfreq - Clock frequency for AD1816A chip (default = 0, 33000Hz)

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and PnP.

Module snd-ad1848
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on AD1848/AD1847/CS4248 ISA chips.

port - port # for AD1848 chip
irq - IRQ # for AD1848 chip
dma1 - DMA # for AD1848 chip (0,1,3)

This module supports multiple cards. It does not support autoprobe
thus main port must be specified!!! Other ports are optional.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ad1889
-----------------

Module for Analog Devices AD1889 chips.

ac97_quirk - AC'97 workaround for strange hardware
See the description of intel8x0 module for details.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-ali5451
------------------

Module for ALi M5451 PCI chip.

pcm_channels - Number of hardware channels assigned for PCM
spdif - Support SPDIF I/O
- Default: disabled

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-als100
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on Avance Logic ALS100/ALS120 ISA chips.

port - port # for ALS100 (SB16) chip (PnP setup)
irq - IRQ # for ALS100 (SB16) chip (PnP setup)
dma8 - 8-bit DMA # for ALS100 (SB16) chip (PnP setup)
dma16 - 16-bit DMA # for ALS100 (SB16) chip (PnP setup)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 (PnP setup)
fm_port - port # for OPL3 FM (PnP setup)

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and PnP.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-als300
-----------------

Module for Avance Logic ALS300 and ALS300+

This module supports multiple cards.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-als4000
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Avance Logic ALS4000 PCI chip.

joystick_port - port # for legacy joystick support.
0 = disabled (default), 1 = auto-detect

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and PnP.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-atiixp
-----------------

Module for ATI IXP 150/200/250/400 AC97 controllers.

ac97_clock - AC'97 clock (default = 48000)
ac97_quirk - AC'97 workaround for strange hardware
See "AC97 Quirk Option" section below.
ac97_codec - Workaround to specify which AC'97 codec
instead of probing. If this works for you
file a bug with your `lspci -vn` output.
-2 -- Force probing.
-1 -- Default behavior.
0-2 -- Use the specified codec.
spdif_aclink - S/PDIF transfer over AC-link (default = 1)

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

ATI IXP has two different methods to control SPDIF output. One is
over AC-link and another is over the "direct" SPDIF output. The
implementation depends on the motherboard, and you'll need to
choose the correct one via spdif_aclink module option.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-atiixp-modem
-----------------------

Module for ATI IXP 150/200/250 AC97 modem controllers.

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-au8810, snd-au8820, snd-au8830
-----------------------------------------

Module for Aureal Vortex, Vortex2 and Advantage device.

pcifix - Control PCI workarounds
0 = Disable all workarounds
1 = Force the PCI latency of the Aureal card to 0xff
2 = Force the Extend PCI#2 Internal Master for Efficient
Handling of Dummy Requests on the VIA KT133 AGP Bridge
3 = Force both settings
255 = Autodetect what is required (default)

This module supports all ADB PCM channels, ac97 mixer, SPDIF, hardware
EQ, mpu401, gameport. A3D and wavetable support are still in development.
Development and reverse engineering work is being coordinated at
http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/openvortex/
SPDIF output has a copy of the AC97 codec output, unless you use the
"spdif" pcm device, which allows raw data passthru.
The hardware EQ hardware and SPDIF is only present in the Vortex2 and
Advantage.

Note: Some ALSA mixer applications don't handle the SPDIF sample rate
control correctly. If you have problems regarding this, try
another ALSA compliant mixer (alsamixer works).

Module snd-azt2320
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Aztech System AZT2320 ISA chip (PnP only).

port - port # for AZT2320 chip (PnP setup)
wss_port - port # for WSS (PnP setup)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup)
fm_port - FM port # for AZT2320 chip (PnP setup)
irq - IRQ # for AZT2320 (WSS) chip (PnP setup)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup)
dma1 - 1st DMA # for AZT2320 (WSS) chip (PnP setup)
dma2 - 2nd DMA # for AZT2320 (WSS) chip (PnP setup)

This module supports multiple cards, PnP and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-azt3328
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Aztech AZF3328 PCI chip.

joystick - Enable joystick (default off)

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-bt87x
----------------

Module for video cards based on Bt87x chips.

digital_rate - Override the default digital rate 囗囗囗囗
load_all - Load the driver even if the card model isn't known

This module supports multiple cards.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

Module snd-ca0106
-----------------

Module for Creative Audigy LS and SB Live 24bit

This module supports multiple cards.


Module snd-cmi8330
------------------

Module for sound cards based on C-Media CMI8330 ISA chips.

wssport - port # for CMI8330 chip (WSS)
wssirq - IRQ # for CMI8330 chip (WSS)
wssdma - first DMA # for CMI8330 chip (WSS)
sbport - port # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)
sbirq - IRQ # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)
sbdma8 - 8bit DMA # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)
sbdma16 - 16bit DMA # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cmipci
-----------------

Module for C-Media CMI8338 and 8738 PCI sound cards.

mpu_port - 0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330 = legacy port,
1 = integrated PCI port,
0 = disable (default)
fm_port - 0x388 = legacy port,
1 = integrated PCI port (default),
0 = disable
soft_ac3 - Software-conversion of raw SPDIF packets (model 033 only)
(default = 1)
joystick_port - Joystick port address (0 = disable, 1 = auto-detect)

This module supports autoprobe and multiple cards.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs4231
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on CS4231 ISA chips.

port - port # for CS4231 chip
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (optional), -1 = disable
irq - IRQ # for CS4231 chip
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART
dma1 - first DMA # for CS4231 chip
dma2 - second DMA # for CS4231 chip

This module supports multiple cards. This module does not support autoprobe
thus main port must be specified!!! Other ports are optional.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs4232
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on CS4232/CS4232A ISA chips.

port - port # for CS4232 chip (PnP setup - 0x534)
cport - control port # for CS4232 chip (PnP setup - 0x120,0x210,0xf00)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup - 0x300), -1 = disable
fm_port - FM port # for CS4232 chip (PnP setup - 0x388), -1 = disable
irq - IRQ # for CS4232 chip (5,7,9,11,12,15)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (9,11,12,15)
dma1 - first DMA # for CS4232 chip (0,1,3)
dma2 - second DMA # for Yamaha CS4232 chip (0,1,3), -1 = disable
isapnp - ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

This module supports multiple cards. This module does not support autoprobe
thus main port must be specified!!! Other ports are optional.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs4236
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on CS4235/CS4236/CS4236B/CS4237B/
CS4238B/CS4239 ISA chips.

port - port # for CS4236 chip (PnP setup - 0x534)
cport - control port # for CS4236 chip (PnP setup - 0x120,0x210,0xf00)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup - 0x300), -1 = disable
fm_port - FM port # for CS4236 chip (PnP setup - 0x388), -1 = disable
irq - IRQ # for CS4236 chip (5,7,9,11,12,15)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (9,11,12,15)
dma1 - first DMA # for CS4236 chip (0,1,3)
dma2 - second DMA # for CS4236 chip (0,1,3), -1 = disable
isapnp - ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

This module supports multiple cards. This module does not support autoprobe
(if ISA PnP is not used) thus main port and control port must be
specified!!! Other ports are optional.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs4281
-----------------

Module for Cirrus Logic CS4281 soundchip.

dual_codec - Secondary codec ID (0 = disable, default)

This module supports multiple cards.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs46xx
-----------------

Module for PCI sound cards based on CS4610/CS4612/CS4614/CS4615/CS4622/
CS4624/CS4630/CS4280 PCI chips.

external_amp - Force to enable external amplifier.
thinkpad - Force to enable Thinkpad's CLKRUN control.
mmap_valid - Support OSS mmap mode (default = 0).

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.
Usually external amp and CLKRUN controls are detected automatically
from PCI sub vendor/device ids. If they don't work, give the options
above explicitly.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs5535audio
----------------------

Module for multifunction CS5535 companion PCI device

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-darla20
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Darla20

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-darla24
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Darla24

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-dt019x
-----------------

Module for Diamond Technologies DT-019X / Avance Logic ALS-007 (PnP
only)

port - Port # (PnP setup)
mpu_port - Port # for MPU-401 (PnP setup)
fm_port - Port # for FM OPL-3 (PnP setup)
irq - IRQ # (PnP setup)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 (PnP setup)
dma8 - DMA # (PnP setup)

This module supports multiple cards. This module is enabled only with
ISA PnP support.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-dummy
----------------

Module for the dummy sound card. This "card" doesn't do any output
or input, but you may use this module for any application which
requires a sound card (like RealPlayer).

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-echo3g
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio 3G cards (Gina3G/Layla3G)

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-emu10k1
------------------

Module for EMU10K1/EMU10k2 based PCI sound cards.
* Sound Blaster Live!
* Sound Blaster PCI 512
* Emu APS (partially supported)
* Sound Blaster Audigy

extin - bitmap of available external inputs for FX8010 (see bellow)
extout - bitmap of available external outputs for FX8010 (see bellow)
seq_ports - allocated sequencer ports (4 by default)
max_synth_voices - limit of voices used for wavetable (64 by default)
max_buffer_size - specifies the maximum size of wavetable/pcm buffers
given in MB unit. Default value is 128.
enable_ir - enable IR

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Input & Output configurations [extin/extout]
* Creative Card wo/Digital out [0x0003/0x1f03]
* Creative Card w/Digital out [0x0003/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card w/Digital CD in [0x000f/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card wo/Digital out + LiveDrive [0x3fc3/0x1fc3]
* Creative Card w/Digital out + LiveDrive [0x3fc3/0x1fcf]
* Creative Card w/Digital CD in + LiveDrive [0x3fcf/0x1fcf]
* Creative Card wo/Digital out + Digital I/O 2 [0x0fc3/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card w/Digital out + Digital I/O 2 [0x0fc3/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card w/Digital CD in + Digital I/O 2 [0x0fcf/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card 5.1/w Digital out + LiveDrive [0x3fc3/0x1fff]
* Creative Card 5.1 (c) 2003 [0x3fc3/0x7cff]
* Creative Card all ins and outs [0x3fff/0x7fff]

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-emu10k1x
-------------------

Module for Creative Emu10k1X (SB Live Dell OEM version)

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-ens1370
------------------

Module for Ensoniq AudioPCI ES1370 PCI sound cards.
* SoundBlaster PCI 64
* SoundBlaster PCI 128

joystick - Enable joystick (default off)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ens1371
------------------

Module for Ensoniq AudioPCI ES1371 PCI sound cards.
* SoundBlaster PCI 64
* SoundBlaster PCI 128
* SoundBlaster Vibra PCI

joystick_port - port # for joystick (0x200,0x208,0x210,0x218),
0 = disable (default), 1 = auto-detect

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-es968
----------------

Module for sound cards based on ESS ES968 chip (PnP only).

port - port # for ES968 (SB8) chip (PnP setup)
irq - IRQ # for ES968 (SB8) chip (PnP setup)
dma1 - DMA # for ES968 (SB8) chip (PnP setup)

This module supports multiple cards, PnP and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-es1688
-----------------

Module for ESS AudioDrive ES-1688 and ES-688 sound cards.

port - port # for ES-1688 chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 port (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330), -1 = disable (default)
irq - IRQ # for ES-1688 chip (5,7,9,10)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 port (5,7,9,10)
dma8 - DMA # for ES-1688 chip (0,1,3)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe (without MPU-401 port).

Module snd-es18xx
-----------------

Module for ESS AudioDrive ES-18xx sound cards.

port - port # for ES-18xx chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 port (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330), -1 = disable (default)
fm_port - port # for FM (optional, not used)
irq - IRQ # for ES-18xx chip (5,7,9,10)
dma1 - first DMA # for ES-18xx chip (0,1,3)
dma2 - first DMA # for ES-18xx chip (0,1,3)
isapnp - ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

This module supports multiple cards, ISA PnP and autoprobe (without MPU-401
port if native ISA PnP routines are not used).
When dma2 is equal with dma1, the driver works as half-duplex.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-es1938
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on ESS Solo-1 (ES1938,ES1946) chips.

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-es1968
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on ESS Maestro-1/2/2E (ES1968/ES1978) chips.

total_bufsize - total buffer size in kB (1-4096kB)
pcm_substreams_p - playback channels (1-8, default=2)
pcm_substreams_c - capture channels (1-8, default=0)
clock - clock (0 = auto-detection)
use_pm - support the power-management (0 = off, 1 = on,
2 = auto (default))
enable_mpu - enable MPU401 (0 = off, 1 = on, 2 = auto (default))
joystick - enable joystick (default off)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-fm801
----------------

Module for ForteMedia FM801 based PCI sound cards.

tea575x_tuner - Enable TEA575x tuner
- 1 = MediaForte 256-PCS
- 2 = MediaForte 256-PCPR
- 3 = MediaForte 64-PCR
- High 16-bits are video (radio) device number + 1
- example: 0x10002 (MediaForte 256-PCPR, device 1)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-gina20
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio Gina20

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-gina24
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio Gina24

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-gusclassic
---------------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound Classic sound card.

port - port # for GF1 chip (0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
irq - IRQ # for GF1 chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1 - DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7)
dma2 - DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)
joystick_dac - 0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
voices - GF1 voices limit (14-32)
pcm_voices - reserved PCM voices

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Module snd-gusextreme
---------------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound Extreme (Synergy ViperMax) sound card.

port - port # for ES-1688 chip (0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
gf1_port - port # for GF1 chip (0x210,0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260,0x270)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 port (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330), -1 = disable
irq - IRQ # for ES-1688 chip (5,7,9,10)
gf1_irq - IRQ # for GF1 chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 port (5,7,9,10)
dma8 - DMA # for ES-1688 chip (0,1,3)
dma1 - DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7)
joystick_dac - 0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
voices - GF1 voices limit (14-32)
pcm_voices - reserved PCM voices

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe (without MPU-401 port).

Module snd-gusmax
-----------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound MAX sound card.

port - port # for GF1 chip (0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
irq - IRQ # for GF1 chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1 - DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7)
dma2 - DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)
joystick_dac - 0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
voices - GF1 voices limit (14-32)
pcm_voices - reserved PCM voices

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Module snd-hda-intel
--------------------

Module for Intel HD Audio (ICH6, ICH6M, ESB2, ICH7, ICH8),
ATI SB450, SB600, RS600,
VIA VT8251/VT8237A,
SIS966, ULI M5461

model - force the model name
position_fix - Fix DMA pointer (0 = auto, 1 = none, 2 = POSBUF, 3 = FIFO size)
single_cmd - Use single immediate commands to communicate with
codecs (for debugging only)
enable_msi - Enable Message Signaled Interrupt (MSI) (default = off)

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

Each codec may have a model table for different configurations.
If your machine isn't listed there, the default (usually minimal)
configuration is set up. You can pass "model=<name>" option to
specify a certain model in such a case. There are different
models depending on the codec chip.

Model name Description
---------- -----------
ALC880
3stack 3-jack in back and a headphone out
3stack-digout 3-jack in back, a HP out and a SPDIF out
5stack 5-jack in back, 2-jack in front
5stack-digout 5-jack in back, 2-jack in front, a SPDIF out
6stack 6-jack in back, 2-jack in front
6stack-digout 6-jack with a SPDIF out
w810 3-jack
z71v 3-jack (HP shared SPDIF)
asus 3-jack (ASUS Mobo)
asus-w1v ASUS W1V
asus-dig ASUS with SPDIF out
asus-dig2 ASUS with SPDIF out (using GPIO2)
uniwill 3-jack
fujitsu Fujitsu Laptops (Pi1536)
F1734 2-jack
lg LG laptop (m1 express dual)
lg-lw LG LW20/LW25 laptop
tcl TCL S700
clevo Clevo laptops (m520G, m665n)
test for testing/debugging purpose, almost all controls can be
adjusted. Appearing only when compiled with
$CONFIG_SND_DEBUG=y
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

ALC260
hp HP machines
hp-3013 HP machines (3013-variant)
fujitsu Fujitsu S7020
acer Acer TravelMate
basic fixed pin assignment (old default model)
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

ALC262
fujitsu Fujitsu Laptop
hp-bpc HP xw4400/6400/8400/9400 laptops
hp-bpc-d7000 HP BPC D7000
benq Benq ED8
hippo Hippo (ATI) with jack detection, Sony UX-90s
hippo_1 Hippo (Benq) with jack detection
basic fixed pin assignment w/o SPDIF
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

ALC882/885
3stack-dig 3-jack with SPDIF I/O
6stack-dig 6-jack digital with SPDIF I/O
arima Arima W820Di1
macpro MacPro support
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

ALC883/888
3stack-dig 3-jack with SPDIF I/O
6stack-dig 6-jack digital with SPDIF I/O
3stack-6ch 3-jack 6-channel
3stack-6ch-dig 3-jack 6-channel with SPDIF I/O
6stack-dig-demo 6-jack digital for Intel demo board
acer Acer laptops (Travelmate 3012WTMi, Aspire 5600, etc)
medion Medion Laptops
targa-dig Targa/MSI
targa-2ch-dig Targs/MSI with 2-channel
laptop-eapd 3-jack with SPDIF I/O and EAPD (Clevo M540JE, M550JE)
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

ALC861/660
3stack 3-jack
3stack-dig 3-jack with SPDIF I/O
6stack-dig 6-jack with SPDIF I/O
3stack-660 3-jack (for ALC660)
uniwill-m31 Uniwill M31 laptop
toshiba Toshiba laptop support
asus Asus laptop support
asus-laptop ASUS F2/F3 laptops
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

ALC861VD/660VD
3stack 3-jack
3stack-dig 3-jack with SPDIF OUT
6stack-dig 6-jack with SPDIF OUT
3stack-660 3-jack (for ALC660VD)
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

CMI9880
minimal 3-jack in back
min_fp 3-jack in back, 2-jack in front
full 6-jack in back, 2-jack in front
full_dig 6-jack in back, 2-jack in front, SPDIF I/O
allout 5-jack in back, 2-jack in front, SPDIF out
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

AD1981
basic 3-jack (default)
hp HP nx6320
thinkpad Lenovo Thinkpad T60/X60/Z60
toshiba Toshiba U205

AD1986A
6stack 6-jack, separate surrounds (default)
3stack 3-stack, shared surrounds
laptop 2-channel only (FSC V2060, Samsung M50)
laptop-eapd 2-channel with EAPD (Samsung R65, ASUS A6J)
ultra 2-channel with EAPD (Samsung Ultra tablet PC)

AD1988
6stack 6-jack
6stack-dig ditto with SPDIF
3stack 3-jack
3stack-dig ditto with SPDIF
laptop 3-jack with hp-jack automute
laptop-dig ditto with SPDIF
auto auto-config reading BIOS (default)

Conexant 5045
laptop Laptop config
test for testing/debugging purpose, almost all controls
can be adjusted. Appearing only when compiled with
$CONFIG_SND_DEBUG=y

Conexant 5047
laptop Basic Laptop config
laptop-hp Laptop config for some HP models (subdevice 30A5)
laptop-eapd Laptop config with EAPD support
test for testing/debugging purpose, almost all controls
can be adjusted. Appearing only when compiled with
$CONFIG_SND_DEBUG=y

STAC9200/9205/9254
ref Reference board

STAC9220/9221
ref Reference board
3stack D945 3stack
5stack D945 5stack + SPDIF
macmini Intel Mac Mini
macbook Intel Mac Book
macbook-pro-v1 Intel Mac Book Pro 1st generation
macbook-pro Intel Mac Book Pro 2nd generation
imac-intel Intel iMac

STAC9202/9250/9251
ref Reference board, base config
m2-2 Some Gateway MX series laptops
m6 Some Gateway NX series laptops

STAC9227/9228/9229/927x
ref Reference board
3stack D965 3stack
5stack D965 5stack + SPDIF

STAC9872
vaio Setup for VAIO FE550G/SZ110
vaio-ar Setup for VAIO AR

The model name "genric" is treated as a special case. When this
model is given, the driver uses the generic codec parser without
"codec-patch". It's sometimes good for testing and debugging.

If the default configuration doesn't work and one of the above
matches with your device, report it together with the PCI
subsystem ID (output of "lspci -nv") to ALSA BTS or alsa-devel
ML (see the section "Links and Addresses").

Note 2: If you get click noises on output, try the module option
position_fix=1 or 2. position_fix=1 will use the SD_LPIB
register value without FIFO size correction as the current
DMA pointer. position_fix=2 will make the driver to use
the position buffer instead of reading SD_LPIB register.
(Usually SD_LPLIB register is more accurate than the
position buffer.)

NB: If you get many "azx_get_response timeout" messages at
loading, it's likely a problem of interrupts (e.g. ACPI irq
routing). Try to boot with options like "pci=noacpi". Also, you
can try "single_cmd=1" module option. This will switch the
communication method between HDA controller and codecs to the
single immediate commands instead of CORB/RIRB. Basically, the
single command mode is provided only for BIOS, and you won't get
unsolicited events, too. But, at least, this works independently
from the irq. Remember this is a last resort, and should be
avoided as much as possible...

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-hdsp
---------------

Module for RME Hammerfall DSP audio interface(s)

This module supports multiple cards.

Note: The firmware data can be automatically loaded via hotplug
when CONFIG_FW_LOADER is set. Otherwise, you need to load
the firmware via hdsploader utility included in alsa-tools
package.
The firmware data is found in alsa-firmware package.

Note: snd-page-alloc module does the job which snd-hammerfall-mem
module did formerly. It will allocate the buffers in advance
when any HDSP cards are found. To make the buffer
allocation sure, load snd-page-alloc module in the early
stage of boot sequence. See "Early Buffer Allocation"
section.

Module snd-hdspm
----------------

Module for RME HDSP MADI board.

precise_ptr - Enable precise pointer, or disable.
line_outs_monitor - Send playback streams to analog outs by default.
enable_monitor - Enable Analog Out on Channel 63/64 by default.

See hdspm.txt for details.

Module snd-ice1712
------------------

Module for Envy24 (ICE1712) based PCI sound cards.
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 1010
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 1010LT
* MidiMan M Audio Delta DiO 2496
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 66
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 44
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 410
* MidiMan M Audio Audiophile 2496
* TerraTec EWS 88MT
* TerraTec EWS 88D
* TerraTec EWX 24/96
* TerraTec DMX 6Fire
* TerraTec Phase 88
* Hoontech SoundTrack DSP 24
* Hoontech SoundTrack DSP 24 Value
* Hoontech SoundTrack DSP 24 Media 7.1
* Event Electronics, EZ8
* Digigram VX442
* Lionstracs, Mediastaton

model - Use the given board model, one of the following:
delta1010, dio2496, delta66, delta44, audiophile, delta410,
delta1010lt, vx442, ewx2496, ews88mt, ews88mt_new, ews88d,
dmx6fire, dsp24, dsp24_value, dsp24_71, ez8,
phase88, mediastation
omni - Omni I/O support for MidiMan M-Audio Delta44/66
cs8427_timeout - reset timeout for the CS8427 chip (S/PDIF transceiver)
in msec resolution, default value is 500 (0.5 sec)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe. Note: The consumer part
is not used with all Envy24 based cards (for example in the MidiMan Delta
serie).

Note: The supported board is detected by reading EEPROM or PCI
SSID (if EEPROM isn't available). You can override the
model by passing "model" module option in case that the
driver isn't configured properly or you want to try another
type for testing.

Module snd-ice1724
------------------

Module for Envy24HT (VT/ICE1724), Envy24PT (VT1720) based PCI sound cards.
* MidiMan M Audio Revolution 5.1
* MidiMan M Audio Revolution 7.1
* MidiMan M Audio Audiophile 192
* AMP Ltd AUDIO2000
* TerraTec Aureon 5.1 Sky
* TerraTec Aureon 7.1 Space
* TerraTec Aureon 7.1 Universe
* TerraTec Phase 22
* TerraTec Phase 28
* AudioTrak Prodigy 7.1
* AudioTrak Prodigy 7.1LT
* AudioTrak Prodigy 192
* Pontis MS300
* Albatron K8X800 Pro II
* Chaintech ZNF3-150
* Chaintech ZNF3-250
* Chaintech 9CJS
* Chaintech AV-710
* Shuttle SN25P

model - Use the given board model, one of the following:
revo51, revo71, amp2000, prodigy71, prodigy71lt,
prodigy192, aureon51, aureon71, universe, ap192,
k8x800, phase22, phase28, ms300, av710

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Note: The supported board is detected by reading EEPROM or PCI
SSID (if EEPROM isn't available). You can override the
model by passing "model" module option in case that the
driver isn't configured properly or you want to try another
type for testing.

Module snd-indigo
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio Indigo

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-indigodj
-------------------

Module for Echoaudio Indigo DJ

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-indigoio
-------------------

Module for Echoaudio Indigo IO

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-intel8x0
-------------------

Module for AC'97 motherboards from Intel and compatibles.
* Intel i810/810E, i815, i820, i830, i84x, MX440
ICH5, ICH6, ICH7, ESB2
* SiS 7012 (SiS 735)
* NVidia NForce, NForce2, NForce3, MCP04, CK804
CK8, CK8S, MCP501
* AMD AMD768, AMD8111
* ALi m5455

ac97_clock - AC'97 codec clock base (0 = auto-detect)
ac97_quirk - AC'97 workaround for strange hardware
See "AC97 Quirk Option" section below.
buggy_irq - Enable workaround for buggy interrupts on some
motherboards (default yes on nForce chips,
otherwise off)
buggy_semaphore - Enable workaround for hardwares with buggy
semaphores (e.g. on some ASUS laptops)
(default off)
spdif_aclink - Use S/PDIF over AC-link instead of direct connection
from the controller chip
(0 = off, 1 = on, -1 = default)

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

Note: the latest driver supports auto-detection of chip clock.
if you still encounter too fast playback, specify the clock
explicitly via the module option "ac97_clock=41194".

Joystick/MIDI ports are not supported by this driver. If your
motherboard has these devices, use the ns558 or snd-mpu401
modules, respectively.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-intel8x0m
--------------------

Module for Intel ICH (i8x0) chipset MC97 modems.
* Intel i810/810E, i815, i820, i830, i84x, MX440
ICH5, ICH6, ICH7
* SiS 7013 (SiS 735)
* NVidia NForce, NForce2, NForce2s, NForce3
* AMD AMD8111
* ALi m5455

ac97_clock - AC'97 codec clock base (0 = auto-detect)

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-interwave
--------------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound PnP, Dynasonic 3-D/Pro, STB Sound Rage 32
and other sound cards based on AMD InterWave (tm) chip.

port - port # for InterWave chip (0x210,0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
irq - IRQ # for InterWave chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1 - DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7)
dma2 - DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)
joystick_dac - 0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
midi - 1 = MIDI UART enable, 0 = MIDI UART disable (default)
pcm_voices - reserved PCM voices for the synthesizer (default 2)
effect - 1 = InterWave effects enable (default 0);
requires 8 voices

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and ISA PnP.

Module snd-interwave-stb
------------------------

Module for UltraSound 32-Pro (sound card from STB used by Compaq)
and other sound cards based on AMD InterWave (tm) chip with TEA6330T
circuit for extended control of bass, treble and master volume.

port - port # for InterWave chip (0x210,0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
port_tc - tone control (i2c bus) port # for TEA6330T chip (0x350,0x360,0x370,0x380)
irq - IRQ # for InterWave chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1 - DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7)
dma2 - DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)
joystick_dac - 0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
midi - 1 = MIDI UART enable, 0 = MIDI UART disable (default)
pcm_voices - reserved PCM voices for the synthesizer (default 2)
effect - 1 = InterWave effects enable (default 0);
requires 8 voices

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and ISA PnP.

Module snd-korg1212
-------------------

Module for Korg 1212 IO PCI card

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-layla20
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Layla20

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-layla24
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Layla24

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-maestro3
-------------------

Module for Allegro/Maestro3 chips

external_amp - enable external amp (enabled by default)
amp_gpio - GPIO pin number for external amp (0-15) or
-1 for default pin (8 for allegro, 1 for
others)

This module supports autoprobe and multiple chips.

Note: the binding of amplifier is dependent on hardware.
If there is no sound even though all channels are unmuted, try to
specify other gpio connection via amp_gpio option.
For example, a Panasonic notebook might need "amp_gpio=0x0d"
option.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-mia
---------------

Module for Echoaudio Mia

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-miro
---------------

Module for Miro soundcards: miroSOUND PCM 1 pro,
miroSOUND PCM 12,
miroSOUND PCM 20 Radio.

port - Port # (0x530,0x604,0xe80,0xf40)
irq - IRQ # (5,7,9,10,11)
dma1 - 1st dma # (0,1,3)
dma2 - 2nd dma # (0,1)
mpu_port - MPU-401 port # (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
mpu_irq - MPU-401 irq # (5,7,9,10)
fm_port - FM Port # (0x388)
wss - enable WSS mode
ide - enable onboard ide support

Module snd-mixart
-----------------

Module for Digigram miXart8 sound cards.

This module supports multiple cards.
Note: One miXart8 board will be represented as 4 alsa cards.
See MIXART.txt for details.

When the driver is compiled as a module and the hotplug firmware
is supported, the firmware data is loaded via hotplug automatically.
Install the necessary firmware files in alsa-firmware package.
When no hotplug fw loader is available, you need to load the
firmware via mixartloader utility in alsa-tools package.

Module snd-mona
---------------

Module for Echoaudio Mona

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-mpu401
-----------------

Module for MPU-401 UART devices.

port - port number or -1 (disable)
irq - IRQ number or -1 (disable)
pnp - PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)
uart_enter - Issue UART_ENTER command at open - bool, default = on

This module supports multiple devices and PnP.

Module snd-mtpav
----------------

Module for MOTU MidiTimePiece AV multiport MIDI (on the parallel
port).

port - I/O port # for MTPAV (0x378,0x278, default=0x378)
irq - IRQ # for MTPAV (7,5, default=7)
hwports - number of supported hardware ports, default=8.

Module supports only 1 card. This module has no enable option.

Module snd-mts64
----------------

Module for Ego Systems (ESI) Miditerminal 4140

This module supports multiple devices.
Requires parport (CONFIG_PARPORT).

Module snd-nm256
----------------

Module for NeoMagic NM256AV/ZX chips

playback_bufsize - max playback frame size in kB (4-128kB)
capture_bufsize - max capture frame size in kB (4-128kB)
force_ac97 - 0 or 1 (disabled by default)
buffer_top - specify buffer top address
use_cache - 0 or 1 (disabled by default)
vaio_hack - alias buffer_top=0x25a800
reset_workaround - enable AC97 RESET workaround for some laptops
reset_workaround2 - enable extended AC97 RESET workaround for some
other laptops

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Note: on some notebooks the buffer address cannot be detected
automatically, or causes hang-up during initialization.
In such a case, specify the buffer top address explicitly via
the buffer_top option.
For example,
Sony F250: buffer_top=0x25a800
Sony F270: buffer_top=0x272800
The driver supports only ac97 codec. It's possible to force
to initialize/use ac97 although it's not detected. In such a
case, use force_ac97=1 option - but *NO* guarantee whether it
works!

Note: The NM256 chip can be linked internally with non-AC97
codecs. This driver supports only the AC97 codec, and won't work
with machines with other (most likely CS423x or OPL3SAx) chips,
even though the device is detected in lspci. In such a case, try
other drivers, e.g. snd-cs4232 or snd-opl3sa2. Some has ISA-PnP
but some doesn't have ISA PnP. You'll need to specify isapnp=0
and proper hardware parameters in the case without ISA PnP.

Note: some laptops need a workaround for AC97 RESET. For the
known hardware like Dell Latitude LS and Sony PCG-F305, this
workaround is enabled automatically. For other laptops with a
hard freeze, you can try reset_workaround=1 option.

Note: Dell Latitude CSx laptops have another problem regarding
AC97 RESET. On these laptops, reset_workaround2 option is
turned on as default. This option is worth to try if the
previous reset_workaround option doesn't help.

Note: This driver is really crappy. It's a porting from the
OSS driver, which is a result of black-magic reverse engineering.
The detection of codec will fail if the driver is loaded *after*
X-server as described above. You might be able to force to load
the module, but it may result in hang-up. Hence, make sure that
you load this module *before* X if you encounter this kind of
problem.

Module snd-opl3sa2
------------------

Module for Yamaha OPL3-SA2/SA3 sound cards.

port - control port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x370)
sb_port - SB port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x220,0x240)
wss_port - WSS port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
midi_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x330), -1 = disable
fm_port - FM port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x388), -1 = disable
irq - IRQ # for OPL3-SA chip (5,7,9,10)
dma1 - first DMA # for Yamaha OPL3-SA chip (0,1,3)
dma2 - second DMA # for Yamaha OPL3-SA chip (0,1,3), -1 = disable
isapnp - ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

This module supports multiple cards and ISA PnP. It does not support
autoprobe (if ISA PnP is not used) thus all ports must be specified!!!

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-opti92x-ad1848
-------------------------

Module for sound cards based on OPTi 82c92x and Analog Devices AD1848 chips.
Module works with OAK Mozart cards as well.

port - port # for WSS chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
fm_port - port # for OPL3 device (0x388)
irq - IRQ # for WSS chip (5,7,9,10,11)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (5,7,9,10)
dma1 - first DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)

This module supports only one card, autoprobe and PnP.

Module snd-opti92x-cs4231
-------------------------

Module for sound cards based on OPTi 82c92x and Crystal CS4231 chips.

port - port # for WSS chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
fm_port - port # for OPL3 device (0x388)
irq - IRQ # for WSS chip (5,7,9,10,11)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (5,7,9,10)
dma1 - first DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)
dma2 - second DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)

This module supports only one card, autoprobe and PnP.

Module snd-opti93x
------------------

Module for sound cards based on OPTi 82c93x chips.

port - port # for WSS chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
fm_port - port # for OPL3 device (0x388)
irq - IRQ # for WSS chip (5,7,9,10,11)
mpu_irq - IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (5,7,9,10)
dma1 - first DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)
dma2 - second DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)

This module supports only one card, autoprobe and PnP.

Module snd-pcxhr
----------------

Module for Digigram PCXHR boards

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-portman2x4
---------------------

Module for Midiman Portman 2x4 parallel port MIDI interface

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-powermac (on ppc only)
---------------------------------

Module for PowerMac, iMac and iBook on-board soundchips

enable_beep - enable beep using PCM (enabled as default)

Module supports autoprobe a chip.

Note: the driver may have problems regarding endianess.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-pxa2xx-ac97 (on arm only)
------------------------------------

Module for AC97 driver for the Intel PXA2xx chip

For ARM architecture only.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-riptide
------------------

Module for Conexant Riptide chip

joystick_port - Joystick port # (default: 0x200)
mpu_port - MPU401 port # (default: 0x330)
opl3_port - OPL3 port # (default: 0x388)

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.
You need to install the firmware file "riptide.hex" to the standard
firmware path (e.g. /lib/firmware).

Module snd-rme32
----------------

Module for RME Digi32, Digi32 Pro and Digi32/8 (Sek'd Prodif32,
Prodif96 and Prodif Gold) sound cards.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-rme96
----------------

Module for RME Digi96, Digi96/8 and Digi96/8 PRO/PAD/PST sound cards.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-rme9652
------------------

Module for RME Digi9652 (Hammerfall, Hammerfall-Light) sound cards.

precise_ptr - Enable precise pointer (doesn't work reliably).
(default = 0)

This module supports multiple cards.

Note: snd-page-alloc module does the job which snd-hammerfall-mem
module did formerly. It will allocate the buffers in advance
when any RME9652 cards are found. To make the buffer
allocation sure, load snd-page-alloc module in the early
stage of boot sequence. See "Early Buffer Allocation"
section.

Module snd-sa11xx-uda1341 (on arm only)
---------------------------------------

Module for Philips UDA1341TS on Compaq iPAQ H3600 sound card.

Module supports only one card.
Module has no enable and index options.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-sb8
--------------

Module for 8-bit SoundBlaster cards: SoundBlaster 1.0,
SoundBlaster 2.0,
SoundBlaster Pro

port - port # for SB DSP chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
irq - IRQ # for SB DSP chip (5,7,9,10)
dma8 - DMA # for SB DSP chip (1,3)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-sb16 and snd-sbawe
-----------------------------

Module for 16-bit SoundBlaster cards: SoundBlaster 16 (PnP),
SoundBlaster AWE 32 (PnP),
SoundBlaster AWE 64 PnP

port - port # for SB DSP 4.x chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
mpu_port - port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x330), -1 = disable
awe_port - base port # for EMU8000 synthesizer (0x620,0x640,0x660)
(snd-sbawe module only)
irq - IRQ # for SB DSP 4.x chip (5,7,9,10)
dma8 - 8-bit DMA # for SB DSP 4.x chip (0,1,3)
dma16 - 16-bit DMA # for SB DSP 4.x chip (5,6,7)
mic_agc - Mic Auto-Gain-Control - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)
csp - ASP/CSP chip support - 0 = disable (default), 1 = enable
isapnp - ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and ISA PnP.

Note: To use Vibra16X cards in 16-bit half duplex mode, you must
disable 16bit DMA with dma16 = -1 module parameter.
Also, all Sound Blaster 16 type cards can operate in 16-bit
half duplex mode through 8-bit DMA channel by disabling their
16-bit DMA channel.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-sgalaxy
------------------

Module for Aztech Sound Galaxy sound card.

sbport - Port # for SB16 interface (0x220,0x240)
wssport - Port # for WSS interface (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
irq - IRQ # (7,9,10,11)
dma1 - DMA #

This module supports multiple cards.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-sscape
-----------------

Module for ENSONIQ SoundScape PnP cards.

port - Port # (PnP setup)
irq - IRQ # (PnP setup)
mpu_irq - MPU-401 IRQ # (PnP setup)
dma - DMA # (PnP setup)

This module supports multiple cards. ISA PnP must be enabled.
You need sscape_ctl tool in alsa-tools package for loading
the microcode.

Module snd-sun-amd7930 (on sparc only)
--------------------------------------

Module for AMD7930 sound chips found on Sparcs.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-sun-cs4231 (on sparc only)
-------------------------------------

Module for CS4231 sound chips found on Sparcs.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-sun-dbri (on sparc only)
-----------------------------------

Module for DBRI sound chips found on Sparcs.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-wavefront
--------------------

Module for Turtle Beach Maui, Tropez and Tropez+ sound cards.

cs4232_pcm_port - Port # for CS4232 PCM interface.
cs4232_pcm_irq - IRQ # for CS4232 PCM interface (5,7,9,11,12,15).
cs4232_mpu_port - Port # for CS4232 MPU-401 interface.
cs4232_mpu_irq - IRQ # for CS4232 MPU-401 interface (9,11,12,15).
use_cs4232_midi - Use CS4232 MPU-401 interface
(inaccessibly located inside your computer)
ics2115_port - Port # for ICS2115
ics2115_irq - IRQ # for ICS2115
fm_port - FM OPL-3 Port #
dma1 - DMA1 # for CS4232 PCM interface.
dma2 - DMA2 # for CS4232 PCM interface.
isapnp - ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

This module supports multiple cards and ISA PnP.

Module snd-sonicvibes
---------------------

Module for S3 SonicVibes PCI sound cards.
* PINE Schubert 32 PCI

reverb - Reverb Enable - 1 = enable, 0 = disable (default)
- SoundCard must have onboard SRAM for this.
mge - Mic Gain Enable - 1 = enable, 0 = disable (default)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Module snd-serial-u16550
------------------------

Module for UART16550A serial MIDI ports.

port - port # for UART16550A chip
irq - IRQ # for UART16550A chip, -1 = poll mode
speed - speed in bauds (9600,19200,38400,57600,115200)
38400 = default
base - base for divisor in bauds (57600,115200,230400,460800)
115200 = default
outs - number of MIDI ports in a serial port (1-4)
1 = default
adaptor - Type of adaptor.
0 = Soundcanvas, 1 = MS-124T, 2 = MS-124W S/A,
3 = MS-124W M/B, 4 = Generic

This module supports multiple cards. This module does not support autoprobe
thus the main port must be specified!!! Other options are optional.

Module snd-trident
------------------

Module for Trident 4DWave DX/NX sound cards.
* Best Union Miss Melody 4DWave PCI
* HIS 4DWave PCI
* Warpspeed ONSpeed 4DWave PCI
* AzTech PCI 64-Q3D
* Addonics SV 750
* CHIC True Sound 4Dwave
* Shark Predator4D-PCI
* Jaton SonicWave 4D

pcm_channels - max channels (voices) reserved for PCM
wavetable_size - max wavetable size in kB (4-?kb)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-usb-audio
--------------------

Module for USB audio and USB MIDI devices.

vid - Vendor ID for the device (optional)
pid - Product ID for the device (optional)
device_setup - Device specific magic number (optional)
- Influence depends on the device
- Default: 0x0000

This module supports multiple devices, autoprobe and hotplugging.

Module snd-usb-caiaq
--------------------

Module for caiaq UB audio interfaces,
* Native Instruments RigKontrol2
* Native Instruments Kore Controller
* Native Instruments Audio Kontrol 1
* Native Instruments Audio 8 DJ

This module supports multiple devices, autoprobe and hotplugging.

Module snd-usb-usx2y
--------------------

Module for Tascam USB US-122, US-224 and US-428 devices.

This module supports multiple devices, autoprobe and hotplugging.

Note: you need to load the firmware via usx2yloader utility included
in alsa-tools and alsa-firmware packages.

Module snd-via82xx
------------------

Module for AC'97 motherboards based on VIA 82C686A/686B, 8233,
8233A, 8233C, 8235, 8237 (south) bridge.

mpu_port - 0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330, otherwise obtain BIOS setup
[VIA686A/686B only]
joystick - Enable joystick (default off) [VIA686A/686B only]
ac97_clock - AC'97 codec clock base (default 48000Hz)
dxs_support - support DXS channels,
0 = auto (default), 1 = enable, 2 = disable,
3 = 48k only, 4 = no VRA, 5 = enable any sample
rate and different sample rates on different
channels
[VIA8233/C, 8235, 8237 only]
ac97_quirk - AC'97 workaround for strange hardware
See "AC97 Quirk Option" section below.

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

Note: on some SMP motherboards like MSI 694D the interrupts might
not be generated properly. In such a case, please try to
set the SMP (or MPS) version on BIOS to 1.1 instead of
default value 1.4. Then the interrupt number will be
assigned under 15. You might also upgrade your BIOS.

Note: VIA8233/5/7 (not VIA8233A) can support DXS (direct sound)
channels as the first PCM. On these channels, up to 4
streams can be played at the same time, and the controller
can perform sample rate conversion with separate rates for
each channel.
As default (dxs_support = 0), 48k fixed rate is chosen
except for the known devices since the output is often
noisy except for 48k on some mother boards due to the
bug of BIOS.
Please try once dxs_support=5 and if it works on other
sample rates (e.g. 44.1kHz of mp3 playback), please let us
know the PCI subsystem vendor/device id's (output of
"lspci -nv").
If dxs_support=5 does not work, try dxs_support=4; if it
doesn't work too, try dxs_support=1. (dxs_support=1 is
usually for old motherboards. The correct implemented
board should work with 4 or 5.) If it still doesn't
work and the default setting is ok, dxs_support=3 is the
right choice. If the default setting doesn't work at all,
try dxs_support=2 to disable the DXS channels.
In any cases, please let us know the result and the
subsystem vendor/device ids. See "Links and Addresses"
below.

Note: for the MPU401 on VIA823x, use snd-mpu401 driver
additionally. The mpu_port option is for VIA686 chips only.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-via82xx-modem
------------------------

Module for VIA82xx AC97 modem

ac97_clock - AC'97 codec clock base (default 48000Hz)

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-virmidi
------------------

Module for virtual rawmidi devices.
This module creates virtual rawmidi devices which communicate
to the corresponding ALSA sequencer ports.

midi_devs - MIDI devices # (1-4, default=4)

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-vx222
----------------

Module for Digigram VX-Pocket VX222, V222 v2 and Mic cards.

mic - Enable Microphone on V222 Mic (NYI)
ibl - Capture IBL size. (default = 0, minimum size)

This module supports multiple cards.

When the driver is compiled as a module and the hotplug firmware
is supported, the firmware data is loaded via hotplug automatically.
Install the necessary firmware files in alsa-firmware package.
When no hotplug fw loader is available, you need to load the
firmware via vxloader utility in alsa-tools package. To invoke
vxloader automatically, add the following to /etc/modprobe.conf

install snd-vx222 /sbin/modprobe --first-time -i snd-vx222 && /usr/bin/vxloader

(for 2.2/2.4 kernels, add "post-install /usr/bin/vxloader" to
/etc/modules.conf, instead.)
IBL size defines the interrupts period for PCM. The smaller size
gives smaller latency but leads to more CPU consumption, too.
The size is usually aligned to 126. As default (=0), the smallest
size is chosen. The possible IBL values can be found in
/proc/asound/cardX/vx-status proc file.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-vxpocket
-------------------

Module for Digigram VX-Pocket VX2 and 440 PCMCIA cards.

ibl - Capture IBL size. (default = 0, minimum size)

This module supports multiple cards. The module is compiled only when
PCMCIA is supported on kernel.

With the older 2.6.x kernel, to activate the driver via the card
manager, you'll need to set up /etc/pcmcia/vxpocket.conf. See the
sound/pcmcia/vx/vxpocket.c. 2.6.13 or later kernel requires no
longer require a config file.

When the driver is compiled as a module and the hotplug firmware
is supported, the firmware data is loaded via hotplug automatically.
Install the necessary firmware files in alsa-firmware package.
When no hotplug fw loader is available, you need to load the
firmware via vxloader utility in alsa-tools package.

About capture IBL, see the description of snd-vx222 module.

Note: snd-vxp440 driver is merged to snd-vxpocket driver since
ALSA 1.0.10.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ymfpci
-----------------

Module for Yamaha PCI chips (YMF72x, YMF74x & YMF75x).

mpu_port - 0x300,0x330,0x332,0x334, 0 (disable) by default,
1 (auto-detect for YMF744/754 only)
fm_port - 0x388,0x398,0x3a0,0x3a8, 0 (disable) by default
1 (auto-detect for YMF744/754 only)
joystick_port - 0x201,0x202,0x204,0x205, 0 (disable) by default,
1 (auto-detect)
rear_switch - enable shared rear/line-in switch (bool)

This module supports autoprobe and multiple chips.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-pdaudiocf
--------------------

Module for Sound Core PDAudioCF sound card.

The power-management is supported.


AC97 Quirk Option
=================

The ac97_quirk option is used to enable/override the workaround for
specific devices on drivers for on-board AC'97 controllers like
snd-intel8x0. Some hardware have swapped output pins between Master
and Headphone, or Surround (thanks to confusion of AC'97
specifications from version to version :-)

The driver provides the auto-detection of known problematic devices,
but some might be unknown or wrongly detected. In such a case, pass
the proper value with this option.

The following strings are accepted:
- default Don't override the default setting
- none Disable the quirk
- hp_only Bind Master and Headphone controls as a single control
- swap_hp Swap headphone and master controls
- swap_surround Swap master and surround controls
- ad_sharing For AD1985, turn on OMS bit and use headphone
- alc_jack For ALC65x, turn on the jack sense mode
- inv_eapd Inverted EAPD implementation
- mute_led Bind EAPD bit for turning on/off mute LED

For backward compatibility, the corresponding integer value -1, 0,
... are accepted, too.

For example, if "Master" volume control has no effect on your device
but only "Headphone" does, pass ac97_quirk=hp_only module option.


Configuring Non-ISAPNP Cards
============================

When the kernel is configured with ISA-PnP support, the modules
supporting the isapnp cards will have module options "isapnp".
If this option is set, *only* the ISA-PnP devices will be probed.
For probing the non ISA-PnP cards, you have to pass "isapnp=0" option
together with the proper i/o and irq configuration.

When the kernel is configured without ISA-PnP support, isapnp option
will be not built in.


Module Autoloading Support
==========================

The ALSA drivers can be loaded automatically on demand by defining
module aliases. The string 'snd-card-%1' is requested for ALSA native
devices where %i is sound card number from zero to seven.

To auto-load an ALSA driver for OSS services, define the string
'sound-slot-%i' where %i means the slot number for OSS, which
corresponds to the card index of ALSA. Usually, define this
as the same card module.

An example configuration for a single emu10k1 card is like below:
----- /etc/modprobe.conf
alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
alias sound-slot-0 snd-emu10k1
----- /etc/modprobe.conf

The available number of auto-loaded sound cards depends on the module
option "cards_limit" of snd module. As default it's set to 1.
To enable the auto-loading of multiple cards, specify the number of
sound cards in that option.

When multiple cards are available, it'd better to specify the index
number for each card via module option, too, so that the order of
cards is kept consistent.

An example configuration for two sound cards is like below:

----- /etc/modprobe.conf
# ALSA portion
options snd cards_limit=2
alias snd-card-0 snd-interwave
alias snd-card-1 snd-ens1371
options snd-interwave index=0
options snd-ens1371 index=1
# OSS/Free portion
alias sound-slot-0 snd-interwave
alias sound-slot-1 snd-ens1371
----- /etc/modprobe.conf

In this example, the interwave card is always loaded as the first card
(index 0) and ens1371 as the second (index 1).


ALSA PCM devices to OSS devices mapping
=======================================

/dev/snd/pcmC0D0[c|p] -> /dev/audio0 (/dev/audio) -> minor 4
/dev/snd/pcmC0D0[c|p] -> /dev/dsp0 (/dev/dsp) -> minor 3
/dev/snd/pcmC0D1[c|p] -> /dev/adsp0 (/dev/adsp) -> minor 12
/dev/snd/pcmC1D0[c|p] -> /dev/audio1 -> minor 4+16 = 20
/dev/snd/pcmC1D0[c|p] -> /dev/dsp1 -> minor 3+16 = 19
/dev/snd/pcmC1D1[c|p] -> /dev/adsp1 -> minor 12+16 = 28
/dev/snd/pcmC2D0[c|p] -> /dev/audio2 -> minor 4+32 = 36
/dev/snd/pcmC2D0[c|p] -> /dev/dsp2 -> minor 3+32 = 39
/dev/snd/pcmC2D1[c|p] -> /dev/adsp2 -> minor 12+32 = 44

The first number from /dev/snd/pcmC{X}D{Y}[c|p] expression means
sound card number and second means device number. The ALSA devices
have either 'c' or 'p' suffix indicating the direction, capture and
playback, respectively.

Please note that the device mapping above may be varied via the module
options of snd-pcm-oss module.


Proc interfaces (/proc/asound)
==============================

/proc/asound/card#/pcm#[cp]/oss
-------------------------------
String "erase" - erase all additional informations about OSS applications
String "<app_name> <fragments> <fragment_size> [<options>]"

<app_name> - name of application with (higher priority) or without path
<fragments> - number of fragments or zero if auto
<fragment_size> - size of fragment in bytes or zero if auto
<options> - optional parameters
- disable the application tries to open a pcm device for
this channel but does not want to use it.
(Cause a bug or mmap needs)
It's good for Quake etc...
- direct don't use plugins
- block force block mode (rvplayer)
- non-block force non-block mode
- whole-frag write only whole fragments (optimization affecting
playback only)
- no-silence do not fill silence ahead to avoid clicks
- buggy-ptr Returns the whitespace blocks in GETOPTR ioctl
instead of filled blocks

Example: echo "x11amp 128 16384" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss
echo "squake 0 0 disable" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0c/oss
echo "rvplayer 0 0 block" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss


Early Buffer Allocation
=======================

Some drivers (e.g. hdsp) require the large contiguous buffers, and
sometimes it's too late to find such spaces when the driver module is
actually loaded due to memory fragmentation. You can pre-allocate the
PCM buffers by loading snd-page-alloc module and write commands to its
proc file in prior, for example, in the early boot stage like
/etc/init.d/*.local scripts.

Reading the proc file /proc/drivers/snd-page-alloc shows the current
usage of page allocation. In writing, you can send the following
commands to the snd-page-alloc driver:

- add VENDOR DEVICE MASK SIZE BUFFERS

VENDOR and DEVICE are PCI vendor and device IDs. They take
integer numbers (0x prefix is needed for the hex).
MASK is the PCI DMA mask. Pass 0 if not restricted.
SIZE is the size of each buffer to allocate. You can pass
k and m suffix for KB and MB. The max number is 16MB.
BUFFERS is


页首
 用户资料  
 
5 楼 
 文章标题 :
帖子发表于 : 2007-06-07 13:35 

注册: 2006-04-29 14:54
帖子: 1187
地址: 山东
送出感谢: 0 次
接收感谢: 0 次
1、终端运行 alsamixer按F5将所有音量全开
=============================
没看全,但至少这里就不对了,在alsamixer中按F5是将视图(View)切换到All上,也就是显示所有Item。

也许是我理解你的表述有误。


_________________
学会看置顶帖、精华帖。
学会使用搜索。
常见问题解答和发帖需知


页首
 用户资料  
 
显示帖子 :  排序  
发表新帖 回复这个主题  [ 5 篇帖子 ] 

当前时区为 UTC + 8 小时


在线用户

正在浏览此版面的用户:没有注册用户 和 4 位游客


不能 在这个版面发表主题
不能 在这个版面回复主题
不能 在这个版面编辑帖子
不能 在这个版面删除帖子
不能 在这个版面提交附件

前往 :  
本站点为公益性站点,用于推广开源自由软件,由 DiaHosting VPSBudgetVM VPS 提供服务。
我们认为:软件应可免费取得,软件工具在各种语言环境下皆可使用,且不会有任何功能上的差异;
人们应有定制和修改软件的自由,且方式不受限制,只要他们自认为合适。

Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group
简体中文语系由 王笑宇 翻译