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 文章标题 : sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg (转)
帖子发表于 : 2007-10-11 11:56 

注册: 2007-08-09 3:33
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系统: Windows 12.04
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我觉得这是一篇好文章,呵呵。

sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg

Edited Saturday, August 18 2007

This web-page is part of a larger site giving examples of how to install Windows+Ubuntu Linux operating systems 'dual boot' in a computer. Illustrated Dual Boot HomePage

This web-page shows a series of illustrations that record an example of what it is like to use the 'sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg' command if your Ubuntu install leaves you at a command prompt on a black background.

It is hoped that being able to see ahead of time what to expect by looking at this web page will be re-assuring for those who find themselves needing to do this.

This web-page is to mainly to provide illustrations, and is not meant to imply the the author knows very much about the subject. I am just an ordinary user, (like you maybe), but I have put a little time into running through this myself, searching Ubuntu Web forums and googling up information.

There is an excellent thread in Ubuntu Web Forums for help with your Xserver which I recommend people read first if possible. Dealing with problems with the Xserver (hosted by tseliot). If you need extra help you might be lucky enough to find it there.
This web-page is not supposed to compete with the above thread, but to help by providing some illustrations that might be useful to guide new users through the process.

The main purpose of sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg is to help the operating system make a file called /etc/X11/xorg.conf

The /etc/X11/xorg.conf file is one of the files that our operating system will use to control how our X Window system, or xserver works. The X server is the part of the the operating system that gives us our 'Graphical User Interface'. In other words it gives us our Windows and mouse pointer so we can see pictures and point and click things instead of just typing commands after a prompt. Wikipedia definition of X-server.

X Window System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There are at least two popular types of X windows systems used for Linux are X.Org and XFree86.
As far as I know Ubuntu uses the X.Org window system.

sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver.org looks like a technically demanding ordeal, but don't worry. For almost all of these 'decisions' all I had to do was press my Enter key and accept the defaults that were offered.
A few times I had to use my Tab key as well, to select <Yes> or <No>.
Most of it was actually fairly close to automatic, the program detected most of my hardware all by itself and offered the correct drivers and settings. All I had to do was confirm most of it and just make one or two small corrections.

You don't have to know the details of all your computer's hardware to complete this.
I did happen to know the brand of my video card. it could be helpful, but not critical, to know a few other details about your computer's hardware before beginning this.
There will be generic drivers offered (vesa and vga), in case you don't know or can't find a specific driver for your video card. The vesa driver should work for almost any machine, and if you have trouble, it's a good reliable one to roll back to.


How to find out what video card and monitor your machine has.

* Look at the paperwork that came with your computer when it was new, if you can still find it.

* LiveCD method, It is possible to find out quite a lot using the Dapper 'Desktop' Live/Install CD (before you begin your install, preferably) and going 'System --> Administration --> Device Manager, and taking a few notes about what your hardware is listed there. Knoppix is also very good for that. While you are there, make notes of all your other hardware as well.

* Use a Linux command like sudo ddcprobe
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo ddcprobe
That command will give you all kinds of information that can be very useful, you could save a copy of the output from the ddcprobe somehow, it could turn out to be handy later on, especially if you need to ask for help in Ubuntu Web Forums.

* Open up your computer case and shine a light in there to try to find a brand name and model number written on a sticker or printed on the card somewhere. Be careful not to touch anything that might harm you or the machine.









Now, here's an example of what your may have seen before you landed in this strange environment:

Failed to start the X server (your graphical interface). It is likely that it is not set up correctly. Would you like to view the X server output to diagnose the problem?

<Yes> <No>
fig1X 'Yes'
Actually, this sign is on a gray background with some strange black type with a blue background behind that.
This is the first sign that most people will see to indicate that their new install is not going to result in the Ubuntu login screen as quickly as they might hope.

One of the reasons you might have been given this sign is that maybe you have some fancy hardware and Ubuntu wants you to hold its hand and help it pick out the right drivers for your nice new upmarket machine.
People with ordinary, cheap older computers are less likely to be given this opportunity, so feel priveledged.


X Window System Version 7.0.0
Release Date: 21 December 2005
X Protocol Version 11, Revision 0, Release 7.0
Build Operating System:Linux 2.6.12 i686
Current Operating System: Linux yellow 2.6.15-18-386 #1 PREEMPT Thu
Mar 9 14:41:49 UTC 2006 i686
Build Date: 21 December 2005
Before reporting problems, check http://wiki.x.org
to make sure that you have the latest version.
Module Loader present
Markers: (--) probed, (**) from config file, (==) default setting,
(++) from command line, (!!) notice, (II) informational,
(WW) warning, (EE) error, (NI) not implemented, (??) unknown.
(==) Log file: "/var/log/Xorg.0.log", Time: Sun Jul 2 08:30:29 2006
(==) Using config file: "etc/X11/xorg.cof

<Ok>
fig2X Okay.
This is the X server output, it looks to me like some information to help us communicate with tech support or reporting a bug or the like.

Would you like to view the detailed X server output as well?



<Yes> <No>
fig3X Yes
I chose 'Yes' just out of curiosity.

X Window System Version 7.0.0
Release Date: 21 December 2005
X Protocol Version 11, Revision 0, Release 7.0
Build Operating System:Linux 2.6.12 i686
Current Operating System: Linux yellow 2.6.15-18-386 #1 PREEMPT Thu
Mar 9 14:41:49 UTC 2006 i686
Build Date: 21 December 2005
Before reporting problems, check http://wiki.x.org
to make sure that you have the latest version.
Module Loader present
Markers: (--) probed, (**) from config file, (==) default setting,
(++) from command line, (!!) notice, (II) informational,
(WW) warning, (EE) error, (NI) not implemented, (??) unknown.
(==) Log file: "/var/log/Xorg.0.log", Time: Sun Jul 2 08:30:29 2006
(==) Using config file: "etc/X11/xorg.cof

<Ok>

fig4X Okay
This looks identical to the regular X server output to me. Maybe other people get something different.

The X server is now disabled. Restart GDM
when it is configured correctly.

<Ok>

fig5X Okay
At this point (as soon as I press my 'Enter' key for 'Ok', my monitor background turned from blue to black and some white text appeared on the black background. (See below).
(You do not need to reboot, just press 'Enter').
[4294694.96600] hdc: drive_cmd:error=0x04 {Aborted Command}
[4294694.96600] ide: failed opcode was:0xxec
* Starting powerdownd...
* CPU frequency scaling not supported
[ok]
* Starting Bluetooth services...
hdic[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: Core ver 2.8
[4294696.231000] NET: Registering protocol family 31
[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initilaized
sdpd [4294696.231000] Bluetooth: L2CAP socket layer initialized
[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: L2CAP socket layer initilaized
[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: RFCOMM socket layer initilaized
[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: RFCOMM TTY layer initilaized
[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: RFCOMM ver 1.7
[ok]
* Starting RAID monitoring services... [ok]
* Starting anac(h)ronistic cron: anacron [ok]
* Starting deferred execution scheduler... [ok]
* Starting periodic command sheduler... [ok]
* Checking battery state... [ok]

Ubuntu 6.04"Dapper Drake" Development Branch yellow tty1

yellow login: _


fig6X This is the command prompt where I log in with my username and password.

yellow login: herman
Password:

fig7X So that's what I do, I log in with my username and password.

[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: RFCOMM TTY layer initilaized
[4294696.231000] Bluetooth: RFCOMM ver 1.7
[ok]
* Starting RAID monitoring services... [ok]
* Starting anac(h)ronistic cron: anacron [ok]
* Starting deferred execution scheduler... [ok]
* Starting periodic command sheduler... [ok]
* Checking battery state... [ok]

Ubuntu 6.04"Dapper Drake" Development Branch yellow tty1

yellow login: herman
Password:
Linux yellow 2.6.15-18-386 #1 PREEMPT Thu Mar 9 14:41 49 UTC 2006 i686 GNU/Linux

The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*copyright.

Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by
applicable law.
To run a command as administrator (user "root"), use "sudo <command>".
See "man sudo_root" for details.

herman@yellow:~$ _

fig8X I'm logged in and Ubuntu responds with the above disclaimer and advice about using sudo.
When we type the word 'sudo' in front of a command in Ubuntu it temporarily gives us 'root privileges' (administrator status).

Commands that are capable of resulting in system changes or changes to system settings normally require the word 'sudo' to be placed before the command. That means the system will ask for our password before carrying out the command, unless we already typed it within the last 15 minutes.
If you want to read all about 'sudo', type man sudo after the prompt, or man root, to learn all about root.
The command 'man' is short for 'manual'.

herman@yellow:~$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg
Password:
fig9X This is where I enter the command: sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg
then I type my password again.

Another thing some people might want to consider here is trying the command 'ls /etc/X11/'. This is to see if there are any backup copies of the xorg.conf file around. If there is they would be named something like ' xorg.conf.20070518160752', (with a number after the name of the file). If you see one or more like that you may be able to restore it with a 'cp' commmand and save yourself some time. You wouldn't need to run 'sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg and you can skip this web page, just type 'startx' and you're in!
...Meanwhile, for the rest of us,

After this my monitor background turns from black back to blue again and we can expect to be asked a lot of questions about our hardware, as illustrated below.
Configuring xserver-xorg

Accept this option if you would like to attempt to autodetect the
recommended X server and driver module for your video card. If
autodetection fails, you will be asked to specify the desired X server
and/or driver module. If auto detection succeeds, further debconf
questions about your video hardware will be pre-answered.

If you would rather select the X server driver and module yourself,
decline this option. You will not be basked to select the X server if
there is only one available.

Attempt to autodetect video hardware?

<Yes> <No>
fig10X Yes
I choose 'Yes', I would like Ubuntu to attempt to autodetect my hardware.
That means Ubuntu will try to guess what hardware I have and what settings I probably want.
Most of these guesses will be correct. I will just need to monitor the whole process and maybe
guide it a little bit with corrections here and there only if needed.
For the most part I can just accept the answers the program suggests for me.
....................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

For the X Window System graphical user interface to operate correctly, it is necessary to select a video card driver for the X server.

Drivers are typically named for the video card or chipset manufacturer, or for a specific model or family of chipsets.

Select the desired X server driver.

apm
ark
ati
chips
cirrus
cyrix
fbdev
glint
i128
i740
i810
imstt
mga
neomagic
newport
nsc
nv
rendition
s3
s3virge
savage
siliconmotion
sis
sisusb
tdfx
tga
trident
tseng
vesa
vga
via
vmware
voodoo

<Ok>
fig11X
For me it is ati, for your computer it will most likely be something different.
This is almost the only thing I really needed to know.

The program did not automatically suggest the correct driver for my machine for me on this occasion. I don't know why.
I made the correction by moving the blue rectangle up the list to the correct driver for the brand of the video card I have in my machine.
This how to was first made back in the days of flight 5 Dapper Drake. Flight 5 Dapper was a pre-release version for adventurous users who can cope with a few little things like this.
Since then officially released versions of Ubuntu have all been able to detect my video cards in all the machines I have installed Ubuntu in and have automatically installed everything correctly without a hitch.
I had to run sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg again when I plugged in my new 20" LCD monitor to replace my original 17" CRT one.

Installing the correct driver should give me the best performance.
If you don't know, or want to choose the safest option, vesa should work as a
good reliable generic driver, or, failing that, vga.

Video Graphics Array - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

VESA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

..................................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

The X server configuration file associates your video card with a name
that you may provide. This is usually the vendor or brand name followed
by the model name, e.g., "Intel i915", "ATI RADEON X800", or "NVIDIA
GeForce 6600".

Enter an identifier for your video card.

ATI Technologies, Inc. RV280 [Radeon 9200 SE]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>
fig12X I just accepted the default for this one. The program has correctly detected
my exact video card now.
...............................................................................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Users of PowerPC machines, and users of any computer with multiple video
devices, should specify the BusID of the video card in an accepted
bus-specific format.

Examples:

ISA:1
PCI:0:16:0
SBUS:/iommu@0,10000000/sbus@0,10001000/SUNW,tcx@2,800000

For users of multi-head setups, this option will configure only one of
the heads. Further configuration will have to be done manually in the X
server configuration file, /etc/X11/xorg.conf.

<Ok>

fig13X Okay
Here is a great link explaining how to go about obtaining this information,
http://wiki.serios.net/wiki/Determining ... identifier

The link says use: lspci -x | grep -i "vga\|display"
Here is an example,
herman@badboy:~$ lspci -x | grep -i "vga\|display"
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: ATI Technologies Inc RV280 [Radeon 9200 SE] (rev 01)


Most of us won't need to know this though, unless we are doing something
special or having an unusual amount of problems. Normally the program will
detect your video card bus ID automatically.

.......................................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Please enter the video cards' bus identifier.

PCI:1:0:0_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>
fig14X Okay.
I just pressed 'Enter' here for <Ok> and accepted the default that was detected
by the program. Everything turned out alright.

Incidentally, here are a couple of links about setting up dual and multiple monitors,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi_monitor | HOWTO: TwinView ‎
I just though I would throw those in here for interest's sake.
.................................................................................


Configuring xserver-xorg

Typically, the amount of dedicated memory your video card has is
autodetected by the X server, but some integrated video chips (such as
the Intel i810) have little or no video memory of their own, and instead
borrow main system memory for their needs.

It is perfectly acceptable to leave this parameter blank; only if your
video card lacks RAM, or if the X server has trouble autodetecting the
amount, is it necessary to specify the amount of video RAM.

Enter the amount of memory (in kB) to be used by your video card.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>

fig15X Okay.
I just left this blank, and so can you unless you have had trouble or are following special instructions.

Here is some extra information just in case it is needed.

There are two types of video memory, shared and dedicated.

Shared memory means that the video memory is being borrowed from the system memory (RAM).
This both reduces the available RAM for other purposes and is slower to access.
Slower to access means slower video performance.

Dedicated memory usually comes with a graphics card (ATI Radeon, GeForce, etc...)
Dedicated video memory raises the price of the video card greatly,
each card states its memory in MB.
32MB, 64MBS, and 128MBs are common values.
You would usually want to buy a computer with a card that has more dedicated memory if
you want to play games or watch high resolution movies.

To find out how much dedicated memory your video card has,

* Look it up in the paperwork you got with your computer when it was new, if you can still find it.

* Look up your video card by it's name and model number on the internet. Your video card manufacturer will be sure to have that listed proudly somewhere on the manufacturer's website.



Configuring xserver-xorg

Rather than communicating directly with the video hardware, the X server
may be configured to perform some operations, such as video mode
switching, via the kernel's framebuffer driver.

In theory, either approach should work, but in practice, sometimes one
does and the other does not. Enabling this operation is the safe bet, but
feel free to turn it off if it appears to cause problems.

Use the framebuffer device interface?

<Yes> <No>

fig16X Yes

..............................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

The default keyboard layout selection for the Xorg server will be based
on a combination of the language and the keyboard layout selected in the
installer.

Accept this option if you want the keyboard layout to be redetected.
Decline it if you want to keep your current layout.

Autodetect keyboard layout?

<Yes> <No>

fig17X No
I don't know about you, but I already selected a keyboard layout earlier in my install
and I don't particularly care about repeating same questions again, so I chose 'No' for this.
...............................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

For the X server to handle your keyboard correctly, a keyboard layout
must be entered. Available layouts depend on which XKB rule set and
keyboard model were previously selected.

Advanced users can use any layout supported by the selected XKB rule
set. If the xkeyboard-config package has been unpacked, see the
/etc/X11/xkb/rules directory for available rule sets.

Users of U.S. English keyboards should enter "us". Users of keyboards
localized for other countries should generally enter their ISO 3166
country code. E.g., France uses "fr", and Germany uses "de".

Please select your keyboard layout.

US _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>
fig18X Okay.
US was the suggested default keyboard layout, I'm happy to stick with that,
so I just pressed 'Enter'.
.........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

For the X server to handle your keyboard correctly, and XKB rule set must
be chosen.

Users of most keyboards should enter "xorg". Users of Sun Type 4 and
Type 5 keyboards, however, should enter "sun".

Advanced users can use any defined XKB rule set. If the
xkeyboard-config package had been unpacked, see the /etc/X11/xkb/rules
directory for available rule sets.

If you don't know what rule set to choose, enter "xorg".

Please select the XKB rule set to use.

xorg_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


<Ok>
fig19X Okay.
xorg was the default XKB rule suggested by the program.
I just left it at that and pressed 'Enter'.
.........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

For the X server to handle your keyboard correctly, a keyboard model
must be entered. Available keyboard models depend on which XKB rule set is in use.

The "pc101" keyboard is a traditional IBM PC/AT style keyboard with 101
keys, historically common in the United States. It does not have the
"logo" or "menu" keys.

The "pc104" keyboard is like the pc101 model, with additional keys.
These keys are usually engraved with a "logo" symbol (there is typically
a pair of these, between each set of control and alt keys), and a "menu"
key.

The "pc102" and "pc105" models are versions of the pc101 and pc104
keyboards, respectively, often found in Europe. If your keyboard has a
"<>" key (a single key engraved with both less-than and
greater-than symbols), you likely have a "pc102" or "pc105" model; if
you choose "pc101" or "pc104" instead, your "<>" key might not work.

The "macintosh" model is for Macintosh keyboards where the kernel and
console tools use the new input layer which uses Linux keycodes;
"macintosh_old" is for macintosh keyboard users who are not using the
new input layer.

All of the above models use the "xorg" rule set.

The "type4 and "type5" models are for Sun Type4 and Type5 keyboards,
respectively. These models can only be used if the "sun" XKB rule set
is in use.

Laptop keyboards often do not have as many keys as standalone models;
laptop users should select the keyboard model most closely approximated
by the above.

Advanced users can use any model defined by the selected XKB rule set.
If the xkeyboard-config package has been unpacked, see the
/etc/X11/xkb/rules directory for available rule sets.

Users of U.S. English keyboards should generally enter "pc104". Users
of most other keyboards should generally enter "pc105".

<Ok>
fig20X Okay.
That is interesting information, useful for answering the next question.
Mine's a pc104 keyboard.
.........................................................................
Configuring xserver-xorg

Please select your keyboard model.

pc104_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>
fig21X Okay
(I just left this as pc104, it was the suggested default).
...........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

For the X server to handle your keyboard as you desire, a keyboard
variant may be entered. Available variants depend on which XKB rule
set, model, and layout were previously selected.

many keyboard layouts support an option to treat "dead" keys such as
non-spacing accent marks and diaereses as normal spacing keys, and if
this is the preferred behavior, enter "nodeadkeys".

Advanced users can use any variant supported by the selected XKB layout.
If the xkeyboard-config package has been unpacked, see the etc/X11/xkb/symbols directory for the available variants.

Users of U.S. English keyboards should generally leave this entry blank.

<Ok>
fig22X Okay.

What are 'dead' keys?, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_key

And another link: http://www.tux.org/~balsa/linux/deadkeys/index.html

And a third: http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globali ... adkeys.jsp
.......................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Please select your keyboard variant.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>
fig23X Okay.
(I just left this blank).
Later when you have your Ubuntu operating system running you can use the command to see all the available keyboard variants,
Code:
ls etc/X11/xkb/symbols

...........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

For the X server to handle your keyboard as you desire, keyboard options
may be entered. Available options depend on which XKB rule
set was previously selected. Not all options will work with every keyboard
model and layout.

For example, if your wish the Caps Lock key to behave as an additional
Control key, you may enter "ctrl:nocaps"; if you would like to switch
the Caps Lock and left Control keys, you may enter "ctrl:swapcaps".

As another example, some people prefer having the Meta keys available on
their keyboard's Alt keys (this is the default), while other people
prefer having the Meta keys on the Windows or "logo" keys instead. If
you prefer to use your Windows or logo keys as Meta keys, you may enter
"altwin:meta_win".

You can combine options by separating them with a comma; for example, if
you wish the Caps Lock key to behave as an additional Control key and
you would like to use your Windows or logo keys as Meta keys, you may
enter "ctrl:nocaps,altwin:meta_win".

Advanced users can use any options compatible with the selected XKB
model, layout and variant.

If you don't know what options to use, leave this entry blank.

<Ok>
fig24X Okay.
.......................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Please select your keyboard options.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>
fig25X Okay.
(I just left this entry blank).
..........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Please choose the entry that best describes your mouse.

ImPS/2
ExplorerPS/2

<Ok>
fig26X ExplorerPS/2

I use ExplorerPS/2 mice.

I don't know whether or not people with other machines are offered only
these two mouse options or if the program detects different mice and offers
different options according to the particular hardware (mouse) you may have.

PS/2 Protocol (Not offered in my list)
I did some googling about this an the best I can work out is a PS/2 mouse protocol
is for an old model of mouse with no mouse-wheel, just two buttons, but it is
modern enough to use a PS/2 connector, (introduced back in 1987).
Some laptop touchpads also have only two buttons.
The PS/2 mouse communicates movements, and the state of each button, by means
of 3-byte packets.

ImPS/2 Protocol
If you have a Wheel Mouse, it usually uses the “ImPS/2″ protocol.
It doesn't matter if it actually has a PS/2 plug, or a USB plug, it will still come under the
ImPs/2 protocol because this is basically the language your machine is going to try talk
to the mouse with.
For backwards compatibility, the Microsoft IntelliMouse relies on an extension of the
PS/2 protocol. It initially operates in standard PS/2 format, but after the host sends a
special command sequence, it switches to an extended format, where a fourth byte
carries information about wheel movements.

ExplorerPS/2 Protocol
The IntelliMouse Explorer has a mouse wheel that you can use for scrolling up, scrolling down
and also push in, so it functions as an extra button. This adds another function, to total five functions.
1)left button 2)right button 3)scroll wheel up 4)scroll wheel down, 5)wheel click
This adds another function, to total five functions.
The Explorer PS/2 protocol means the mouse needs to signal the computer with 4-byte packets.

A few mice (links):
Using 2 mice, showing 2 mouse pointers?

Mouse side buttons

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse_(computing)

http://www.computerhope.com/help/mouse.htm

http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000448.htm

http://blogs.msdn.com/oldnewthing/archi ... 30839.aspx

..........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Most programs in the X Window System expect your mouse to have 3 buttons
(left, right, and middle). Mice with only 2 buttons can emulate the
presence of a middle button by simultaneous clicks or drags of
the left and right buttons as middle button events.

This option may also be used on mice with 3 or more buttons; the middle
button will continue to work normally.

Note that mouse buttons in excess of five (counting a scroll wheel as
two buttons, one each for "up" and "down", and a third if the wheel
"clicks") are not yet supported with this configuration tool.

Emulate 3 button mouse?

<Yes> <No>

fig27X Yes
...........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

It is possible to customize (or completely omit) the list of modules
that the X server loads by default. This option is for advanced users.
In most cases, all of these modules should be enabled.

The glx module enables support for OpenGL rendering. The dri module
enables support in the X server for Direct Rendering Infrastructure
(DRI). Note that support for DRI must also exist in the kernel, the
video card, and the installed version of the Mesa libraries for
hardware-accelerated 3D operations using DRI to work. Otherwise, the
server falls back to software rendering.

The vbe and dcc modules enable support for VESA BIOS Extensions and Data
Display Channel, respectively. These modules are used to query monitor
capabilities via the video card. The int10 module is a real-mode x86
emulator that is used to softboot secondary VGA cards. Note that the
vbe module depends on the int10 module, so if you wish to enable vbe,
enable int10 as well.

The dbe module enables the double-buffering extension in the server, and
is useful for animation and video operations.

The extmod module enables the double-buffering extensions in the server, and
is useful for animation and video operations.

The extmod module enables many traditional and commonly used extensions,
such as shaped windows, shared memory, video mode switching, DGA, and
Xv. The record module implements the RECORD extension, commonly used in
server testing.

The bitmap, freetype, and type1 modules re all font rasterizers.

For further information about these modules, please refer to the X.Org
documentation.

If you are unsure what to do, leave all of the modules enabled. Advanced
users may wish to disable all modules -- in which case no Modules
section will be written to the X server configuration file -- and add
their own Modules section to the file manually.

<Ok>
fig28X Okay.
............................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Select the X.Org server modules that should be loaded by default.

[*] bitmap
[ ] dbe
[*] ddc
[*] dri
[*] extmod
[*] freetype
[*] glx
[*] int10
[ ] record
[*] type1
[ ] v41
[*] vbe (blue rectangle around all, red cursor between [ ], yellow type.


<Ok>
fig29X Okay.
Some of these modules were not enabled by default in my case, the program has not offered me to use dbe, record or v41. I don't know if other machines have the full list enabled or not.
I just accepted the defaults here.
............................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

The Files section of the X server configuration file tells the X server
where to find server modules, the RGB color database, and font files.
This option is for advanced users. In most cases, you should enable it.

Disable this option if you want to write your own "Files" section into
the X.Org server configuration file. You may wish to do this if you
need to remove the reference to the local font server, add a reference
to a different font server, or re-arrange the default set of local font
paths.

Write default Files section to configuration file?

<Yes> <No>

fig30X Yes
............................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Many monitors (including LCD's) and video cards support a communication
protocol that allows the monitor's technical characteristics to be
communicated back to the computer. If your monitor and video card speak
the same dialect of this protocol, further debconf questions about your
monitor will be pre-answered.

If autodetection fails, you will be asked for information about your
monitor.

Attempt monitor autodetection?

<Yes> <No>

fig31X (Yes)
............................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

The X server configuration file associates your monitor with a name that
you may provide. This is usually the vendor or brand name followed by
the model name, e.g., "Sony E200" or "Dell E770s".

Enter an identifier for your monitor.

Acer AC713_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>
fig32X Okay
I now this is correct because it matches what is printed on my monitor case, right in front of me.
...........................................................................
videomodes
Configuring xserver-xorg

If there are some resolutions you would not like the X server to use
even if your hardware is capable of them, remove them from the list
below. Removing all of them is effectively the same as removing none,
since in both cases the X server will attempt to use the highest
possible resolution.

Select the video modes you would like the X server to use.

[ ] 1920x1440
[ ] 1920x1200
[ ] 1856x1392
[ ] 1792x1344
[ ] 1680x1050
[ ] 1600x1200
[ ] 1440x900
[ ] 1400x1050
[ ] 1280x1024
[ ] 1280x960
[ ] 1280x854
[ ] 1280x800
[ ] 1280x768
[ ] 1200x800
[ ] 1152x864
[*] 1152x768
[*] 800x600
[*] 640x480

<Ok>
fig33X Okay
I just left that at the defaults.
...........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

For the X Window System graphical user interface to operate correctly,
certain characteristics of your monitor must be known.

For the "simple" option, you need only know the monitor's physical size;
this will set some configuration values approximate for a typical CRT of
the corresponding size, but may be suboptimal for high-quality CRT's.

The "medium" option will present you with a list of resolutions and
refresh rates, such as "800x600 @ 85Hz"; you should choose the best mode
you wish to use (and that you know your monitor is capable of).

The "advanced" option will let you specify your monitor's horizontal
sync and vertical refresh tolerances directly.

<Ok>
fig34X Okay
............................................................................
Configuring xserver-xorg
Please choose a method for selecting your monitor characteristics.

Simple
Medium
Advanced


<Ok>
fig35X
It doesn't really matter which one we choose here, I have given an example of both
Advanced and Simple, please click one of the links below to see what to expect next.
Advanced Medium Simple
===============================================================

























































Simple
Configuring xserver-xorg

High-quality CRT's may be able to use the next highest size category.

Please choose your approximate monitor size.

Up to 14 inches(355 mm)
15 inches (380 mm)
17 inches (430 mm)
19-20 inches (480-510)
21 inches (530 mm) or more

<Ok>
Okay
The program has correctly detected my monitor and already knows all its details.

Configuring xserver-xorg

The monitor synchronization ranges should be autodetected by the X
server in most cases, but sometimes it needs hinting. This option is
for advanced users, and it should be left at its default.

Write monitor sync ranges to configuration file?

<Yes> <No>

Yes

Configuring xserver-xorg

Usually 24-bit color is desirable, but on graphics cards with limited
amounts of framebuffer memory, higher resolutions may be achieved at the
expense of higher color depth. Also, some cards support hardware 3D
acceleration only for certain depths. Consult your video card manual
for more information.

(So called "32-bit color" is actually 24 bits of color information plus
8 bits of alpha channel or simple zero padding; the X Window System can
handle both. If you want either, select 24 bits.)

Please select your desired default color depth in bits.

1
4
8
15
16
24

<Ok>
Okay
This menu really only shows three of these options at once and it has a scroll bar to scroll up or down the list. I don't know how to reproduce a scroll bar on a website, so I just have the six options shown here. You will need to scroll to see all of them in reality.

This was the last question, after I press 'Enter' for <Ok>, I am returned to the same black screen
I began with, shown below.
xserver-xorg postinst warning: overwriting possibly-customised configuration
file; backup in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.20060624094943
herman@yellow:~$_

What do I do now? Oh dear! I'm lost! ...
I know, I'll type 'startx' after the command prompt, to start my new xserver!
xserver-xorg postinst warning: overwriting possibly-customised configuration
file; backup in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.20060624094943
herman@yellow:~$ startx

That's it! I should now see your my desktop in a few more seconds!

=======================================================================
Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Window_S ... chitecture

how do we know when a device is not install correctly?

Using 2 mice, showing 2 mouse pointers?

Second Mouse in X mini-HOWTO

HOWTO: TwinView ‎

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi_monitor

Don't forget, once the user has Ubuntu running, the file called /etc/X11/xorg.conf can be opened with a text editor such as gedit, for example, using the following code:
herman@red:~$ sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
It is not recommended for the average user to edit their own /etc/X11/xorg.conf file if you don't know what you are doing. If you are following instructions from a guide or know what your are doing, as long as you make a backup copy first, then it is okay. Ubuntu is a free, Open Source operating system, and it is part of the fun to be able to make our own modifications to our own systems until they work the way we want.
Re-running the 'sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg' command is easier than editing the file manually, but for special reasons some people do choose to edit the file themselves.

It can be backed up with the following
code:
herman@red:~$ sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
It can be restored again by reversing the above code.

That means a user could probably make several versions and call them different names like /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backupa, and
/etc/X11/xorg.conf_backupb,
/etc/X11/xorg.conf_backupc and use whichever version of the file suits them and their machine best.
So if you think you can get your machine working better by trying again and making a new /etc/X11/xorg.conf file by doing sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg again, you can. Or just make one or two minor edits.
Just back up your file first, so you can easily restore it again if you want.

You might want to back up your xorg,conf file and edit the file or run sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg again if you,

* experience problems with your mouse or keyboard
* you are not happy with your display
* your system freezes up too often





Back to Top







































...........................................................................
Advanced
Configuring xserver-xorg

Please enter either a comma-separated list of discrete values (for
fixed-frequency displays), or a pair of values separated by a dash (all
modern CRT's). This information should be available in your monitor's
manual. Values lower than 30 or higher than 130 are extremely rare.

Enter your monitor's horizontal sync range.

30-72_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _

<Ok>

I didn't need to type anything here, this was the suggested default detected by the program.
...........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Please enter either a comma-separated list of discrete values (for
fixed-frequency displays), or a pair of values separated by a dash (all
modern CRT's). This information should be available in your monitor's
manual. Values lower than 50 or higher than 160 are extremely rare.

Enter your monitor's vertical sync range.

50-160_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

<Ok>

I didn't need to type anything here, this was the suggested default detected by the program.
...........................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

The monitor synchronization ranges should be autodetected by the X
server in most cases, but sometimes it needs hinting. This option is
for advanced users, and it should be left at its default.

Write monitor sync ranges to configuration file?

<Yes> <No>

Yes
............................................................................

Configuring xserver-xorg

Usually 24-bit color is desirable, but on graphics cards with limited
amounts of framebuffer memory, higher resolutions may be achieved at the
expense of higher color depth. Also, some cards support hardware 3D
acceleration only for certain depths. Consult your video card manual
for more information.

(So called "32-bit color" is actually 24 bits of color information plus
8 bits of alpha channel or simple zero padding; the X Window System can
handle both. If you want either, select 24 bits.)

Please select your desired default color depth in bits.

1
4
8
15
16
24

<Ok>

Okay
This menu really only shows three of these options at once and it has a scroll bar to scroll up or down the list. I don't know how to reproduce a scroll bar on a website, so I just have the six options shown here. You will need to scroll to see all of them in reality.

..........................................................................
This was the last question, after I press 'Enter' for <Ok>, I am returned to the same black screen
I began with, shown below.

xserver-xorg postinst warning: overwriting possibly-customised configuration
file; backup in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.20060624094943
herman@yellow:~$_
.............................................................................

What do I do now? Oh dear! I'm lost! ...
I know, I'll type 'startx' after the command prompt, to start my new xserver!

xserver-xorg postinst warning: overwriting possibly-customised configuration
file; backup in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.20060624094943
herman@yellow:~$ startx
I typed 'startx', and pressed 'Enter'.
..........................................................
That's it! You should now see your new desktop in a few more seconds!


====================================================================
Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Window_S ... chitecture

how do we know when a device is not install correctly?

Using 2 mice, showing 2 mouse pointers?

Second Mouse in X mini-HOWTO

HOWTO: TwinView ‎

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi_monitor

http://www.spectsoft.com/wiki/RaveManua ... figuration

Don't forget, once the user has Ubuntu running, the file called /etc/X11/xorg.conf can be opened with a text editor such as gedit, for example, using the following code:
herman@red:~$ sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
It is not recommended for the average user to edit their own /etc/X11/xorg.conf file if you don't know what you are doing. If you are following instructions from a guide or know what your are doing, as long as you make a backup copy first, then it is okay. Ubuntu is a free, Open Source operating system, and it is part of the fun to be able to make our own modifications to our own systems until they work the way we want.
Re-running the 'sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg' command is easier than editing the file manually, but for special reasons some people do choose to edit the file themselves.

It can be backed up with the following
code:
herman@red:~$ sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
It can be restored again by reversing the above code.

That means a user could probably make several versions and call them different names like /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backupa, and
/etc/X11/xorg.conf_backupb,
/etc/X11/xorg.conf_backupc and use whichever version of the file suits them and their machine best.
So if you think you can get your machine working better by trying again and making a new /etc/X11/xorg.conf file by doing sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg again, you can. Or just make one or two minor edits.
Just back up your file first, so you can easily restore it again if you want.

You might want to back up your xorg,conf file and edit the file or run sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg again if you,

* experience problems with your mouse or keyboard
* you are not happy with your display
* your system freezes up too often

http://users.bigpond.net.au/hermanzone/p7.html


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帖子发表于 : 2007-10-11 12:07 
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注册: 2005-12-28 1:16
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地址: 火星
系统: Ubuntu 12.10 X64
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$man xorg.conf
看懂后自己编辑也很方便


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